The deaths of 39 Vietnamese migrants whose bodies were found in a lorry on an industrial park were "a tragedy on a large scale", a coroner has said.
The 31 males and eight females were discovered in a refrigerated trailer in the early hours of 23 October in Grays, Essex.
Essex Coroner's Court heard they had all died from asphyxia and hyperthermia.
Area coroner Lincoln Brookes adjourned the inquests while criminal proceedings take place.
Essex Police has made several arrests, including that of lorry driver Maurice Robinson, from County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
He faces 39 counts of manslaughter among other offences.
Coroner's officer Nick Hale took more than five minutes to read the full list of the names of the deceased.
A Vietnamese interpreter had been arranged to "provide dignity for the deceased" but was unable to attend due to being in self-isolation as a result of the coronavirus outbreak.
Mr Hale told the court Essex Police had been called at 01:38 GMT to Waterglade Industrial Park where they "found 39 people unresponsive".
Mr Brookes said he was required to adjourn the inquest while legal proceedings were ongoing.
"This is my first opportunity to express my deep condolences to the families of these 39 individuals," he added.
"It is not only in any view a tragedy on a large scale but also a personal tragedy to each of the deceased's families."
Inquests were opened into the deaths of:
Pham Thi Tra My, 26-year-old woman from Ha Tinh
Nguyen Dinh Luong, 20-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Nguyen Huy Phong, 35-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Vo Nhan Du, 19-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Tran Manh Hung, 37-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Tran Khanh Tho, 18-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Vo Van Linh, 25-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Nguyen Van Nhan, 33-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Bui Phan Thang, 37-year-old man from Ha Tinh
Nguyen Huy Hung, 15-year-old boy from Ha Tinh
Tran Thi Tho, 21-year-old woman from Nghe An
Bui Thi Nhung, 19-year-old woman from Nghe An
Vo Ngoc Nam, 28-year-old man from Nghe An
Nguyen Dinh Tu, 26-year-old man from Nghe An
Le Van Ha, 30-year-old man from Nghe An
Tran Thi Ngoc, 19-year-old woman from Nghe An
Nguyen Van Hung, 33-year-old man from Nghe An
Hoang Van Tiep, 18-year-old man from Nghe An
Cao Tien Dung, 37-year-old man from Nghe An
Cao Huy Thanh, 37-year-old man from Nghe An
Tran Thi Mai Nhung, 18-year-old woman from Nghe An
Nguyen Minh Quang, 20-year-old man from Nghe An
Le Trong Thanh, 44-year-old man from Dien Chau
Pham Thi Ngoc Oanh, 28-year-old woman from Nghe An
Hoang Van Hoi, 24-year-old man from Nghe An
Nguyen Tho Tuan, 25-year-old man from Nghe An
Dang Huu Tuyen, 22-year-old man from Nghe An
Nguyen Trong Thai, 26-year-old man from Nghe An
Nguyen Van Hiep, 24-year-old man from Nghe An
Nguyen Thi Van, 35-year-old woman from Nghe An
Tran Hai Loc, 35-year-old man from Nghe An
Duong Minh Tuan, 27-year-old man from Quang Binh
Nguyen Ngoc Ha, 32-year-old man from Quang Binh
Nguyen Tien Dung, 33-year-old man from Quang, Binh
Phan Thi Thanh, 41-year-old woman from Hai Phong
Nguyen Ba Vu Hung, 31-year-old man from Thua Tien Hue
Dinh Dinh Thai Quyen, 18-year-old man from Hai Phong
Tran Ngoc Hieu, 17-year-old boy from Hai Duong
Dinh Dinh Binh, 15-year-old boy from Hai Phong