Birmingham clean air charge: What you need to know
Drivers of high-polluting cars are set to pay £8 to travel into the centre of Birmingham, after the government approved the city's Clean Air Zone plans.
The proposals are to bring in fees for older vehicles, which release high levels of toxic emissions, that are driven within the city's ring road from January 2020.
Birmingham City Council has faced pressure from the government to reduce pollution by setting up a clean air zone.
But how will it work and how will it affect you? The BBC looks at some of the key questions and answers.
Will it affect me?
Proposals put forward are a penalty for vehicles with high nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, so there wouldn't be a congestion charge with a blanket tariff on everyone going into the zone.
Paying would only apply to non-compliant vehicles - diesels manufactured before 2015 and petrol cars made before 2006.
The council has encouraged people to use the Transport for London (TfL) website to see if their vehicles will be compliant.
How much will it cost and who is exempt?
The proposed charges for high-polluting vehicles are £8 for cars and £50 for buses and HGVs driving in central Birmingham.
However, there will be some exemptions. Charges will not be applied:
- For one year for commercial vehicles registered within the zone
- For one year for commercial vehicles registered in Birmingham travelling into the zone with "an existing finance agreement beyond 2020"
- For two years for private cars registered within the zone
- For one year for people travelling into the zone for work
- For one year for visitors to hospitals, GPs and care homes within the clean air zone
There will be permanent exemptions for vans and minibuses registered to provide school and community transport and for vehicles with disabled tax class.
How do I pay the clean air charge?
Vehicles entering the area inside the ring road will be picked up by automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras, so there won't be any barriers or toll booths.
For those who do incur charges, these will be payable online. And if you don't pay up, you could face a £120 fine under proposals.
However, people will not pay for vehicles below the emissions standard if they are parked within the zone all day but are not turned on.
Where would it apply?
All roads inside the A4540 Middleway ring road would fall into the clean air zone, but the circular route itself is not included.
So, for example, that means drivers travelling on the M6 who leave at Spaghetti Junction would be charged if they go right through the city centre on the A38.
The council believes the ring road is a sensible boundary which is clear to motorists and the clean air zone covers most of the worst pollution hotspots in the city.
It is proposed the charge is in effect all day every day.
Will there be any support for those set to be severely penalised by the charge?
The council has secured £15m to help taxi drivers upgrade to newer, cleaner vehicles.
It comes amid go-slow protests in Birmingham from the trade who argue the clean air zone is a threat to their livelihood.
Council transport and environment chief Waseem Zaffar said in March 2019 it would enable them "to continue providing their valuable service to the city".
Why is the council doing this?
Air pollution is widely regarded as a public health crisis in Birmingham that causes 900 premature deaths a year in the city.
The council has stated because of the ministerial direction it had received, it was "impossible" to introduce a zone without charges.
It faces a fine of up to £60m if it fails to implement the zone in time.
How many people is this likely to affect?
Out of the 200,000 vehicles that pass through the city centre every day, about 60% do not comply with the required emission standards, studies have suggested.
So what happens next?
The government has demanded that the zone is implemented by January 2020.