A suspected thief who fell fatally ill after a citizens' arrest died from the exertions of being held down and taking stimulant drugs.
An inquest into David McTaggart's death concluded his running from an alleged robbery scene, combined with struggles with members of the public and his drug use, all contributed to his death.
The Wolverhampton inquest ruled there was no evidence of excessive force.
Mr McTaggart has been previously described as a prolific car key thief.
In 2010, it was revealed he had stolen high performance cars worth £265,000 from the Black Country and Staffordshire.
The inquest heard Mr McTaggart, of Greenwood Road, Wolverhampton, was involved in an alleged robbery during the night of 16 October.
He became involved in a struggle in Stafford Road with members of the public who restrained him and held him down until police arrived.
Officers handcuffed him while he was still in a "prone position".
Cocaine and cannabis
A police officer later noticed he did not look well and was unresponsive, so he was released from the handcuffs, attempts were made to revive him and he was taken to hospital.
He died on 19 October.
Blood tests found amphetamines, cocaine and cannabis in his system along with medication for paranoid schizophrenia which, the inquest heard, can lead to arrythmias (problems with heartbeat).
There was also evidence of alcohol intoxication.
Black Country coroner Zafar Siddique concluded the physical exertion, mental stress and the use of stimulant drugs led to cardiac arrest and an unsurvivable acidosis (too much lactic acid in the body).