Nokia has won a court injunction banning HTC from using microphone components in its flagship HTC One smartphones.
It will create more headaches for the Taiwan-based firm, which has struggled with component shortages.
Nokia said it had taken apart the HTC One and found the high-amplitude audio-capture technology was the same as its own.
HTC said it would be looking for alternatives "immediately".
The ruling made by the Amsterdam District Court is effective until March 2014 and will prevent STMicro, which sells the parts, from offering them to HTC for sale.
The court found the parts had been invented by Nokia and manufactured exclusively for the Finnish company's phones.
Nokia said: "HTC has no licence or authorisation from Nokia to use these microphones or the Nokia technologies from which they have been developed.
"The injunction prevents STMicroelectronics from selling the microphones to anyone except us, anywhere in the world, until 1 March 2014. Its scope is not restricted to the Netherlands.
"The HAAC [high amplitude audio capture] technology used in these microphones is Nokia's and there is no alternate supplier."
In a statement, HTC said it was disappointed by the decision.
"We are considering whether it will have any impact on our business and we will explore alternative solutions immediately," it said.
A spokesman for STMicro - which has its headquarters in Geneva - said his company planned to challenge the ruling.
"A decision has been rendered by the Amsterdam Court, prohibiting ST to sell a specific microphone on the open market," he said.
"ST intends to appeal this decision. In the meantime, ST is ready to propose alternative solutions."