Scientists' work recognised in New Year Honours
The work of a number of the UK's leading scientists has been recognised in the New Year Honours.
Prof Shankar Balasubramanian, a chemist from the University of Cambridge, has received a knighthood.
Prof Ottoline Leyser, director of the Sainsbury Laboratory, and Prof Amanda Fisher from Imperial College London were both made dames.
Prof Jane Francis, who has led the British Antarctic Survey since 2013, becomes a dame, also.
The newly opened Francis Crick Institute in London can now boast a knighthood for its director of research, Prof James Smith.
And Prof Sir Alec Jeffreys is appointed to the very select group of outstanding achievers who hold the title Companion of Honour. It was Sir Alec's research in the 1980s that led to "genetic fingerprinting".
IBM Research director Dr David Watson and Royal Horticultural Society director-general Sue Biggs become CBEs.
Prof Balasubramanian is an internationally recognised authority in the field of nucleic acids, which are essential for all forms of life and are responsible for holding and transmitting genetic information.
His work is considered to be at the forefront of research in the battle against cancer. He is also a senior group leader at the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute.
Prof Ottoline Leyser receives her damehood in recognition for her services to plant science, as well as for her work in equality and diversity within science.
Her work focuses on plant hormones and plant development. She was awarded the Royal Society's Rosalind Franklin award in 2007.
Another researcher to be made a dame is Prof Amanda Fisher, from Imperial College London, for her services to science. Her work focuses on cellular biology within humans. and she heads the college's Institute of Clinical Sciences.
Sue Biggs, director-general of the Royal Horticultural Society, becomes a Commander of the British Empire (CBE). Each year, the society hosts a number of flagship shows to promote the sector, including the Chelsea and the Tatton Park flower shows.
Other scientists to be made CBEs in the New Year Honours list include Prof Michael Depledge, chairman of Environmental and Human Health at the University of Exeter Medical School, and John Pyle, professor of chemistry at the University of Cambridge.