The Road Haulage Association said it had concerns about the impact the Clean Air Zone would have on drivers.
HGV vehicles, which don't meet emissions standards for the zone, face a charge of £50 per day for driving in central Birmingham.
Tom Cotton, head of policy and infrastructure at the association, said the charge would greatly affect smaller haulage firms, who can not afford to upgrade their vehicles, and will struggle to absorb charges meaning they will will be passed down to customers.
He said there should have been a more “structured” introduction, to allow companies to get ready.
“We may have members in the Birmingham area, in fact I am sure sure we do, who have recently bought vehicles only to find they now face being fined or having to pay the charge, which creates a raft of problems economically for businesses who have just been through a pandemic," he said.
“A year ago road freight were key workers, keeping the shops supplied, providing medicines, now they are the pariahs of the universe if you like because of clean air zones.”
Birmingham City Council has previously said air pollution contributed to 900 premature deaths a year in the city and it faced a £60m fine if it failed to implement the zone.