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Live Reporting

Holly Honderich, Max Matza, Sam Cabral and Marianna Brady

All times stated are UK

  1. That's all for today

    Thank you for following BBC's live coverage of the second day of the Derek Chauvin trial. The court is adjourned until tomorrow - Wednesday, 31 March at 09:30 local time.

    We will return with more reporting and analysis as the case continues.

    Today's page was brought to you by Max Matza, Holly Honderich, Sam Cabral and Sophie Williams, edited by Marianna Brady and Boer Deng.

  2. How US history has shaped today's policing

    George Floyd's name is just one of a long list of African Americans to die as a result of racism and police misuse of force throughout the history of the United States.

    Last year, BBC's Clive Myrie took a look at how a toxic mix of racism and bad policing led to the most serious unrest in the US for many years.

    Video content

    Video caption: George Floyd: How the USA's history has shaped today's police brutality
  3. Watch: 'I called police on the police'

    Video content

    Video caption: Chauvin trial: 'I called police on the police'

    The accounts of eyewitnesses who watched George Floyd die in police custody provided powerful testimony for the prosecution on Day Two.

    Several testified people that they begged the officers to check Floyd's body for a pulse and some, feeling helpless, resorted to recording the incident.

    Others called 911 to report the officers who had arrested Floyd.

    As Donald Williams - the day's first witness - recounted, he "called the police on the police".

  4. A testy end to a full day

    Samantha Granville

    BBC News, Minneapolis

    Jurors spent a few hours listening to a powerful testimony from Genevieve Hanson, a firefighter who was off duty and was walking down 38th and Chicago - the last witness of the day.

    She said the officers on the scene prevented her from administering medical help that would have saved George Floyd’s life.

    Hanson was very articulate and forthcoming with the prosecuting lawyers, but then when the defence started cross-examining her, she became much more snarky and short with her answers.

    After being told multiple times to not speak over defence attorney Eric Nelson, and proceeding to interrupt, Judge Cahill got involved and told Hansen she needed to stop, in which she replied, “I’m just finishing my answer!”

    Throughout the day jurors seemed to have vary levels of engagement, but at this tense moment, ears were perked.

    Judge Cahill then asked the jury to leave the court room. They slowly filed out and when the doors shut, he told Hanson she couldn't argue with the court or the counsel, and that she needs to answer the questions she is asked without embellishment.

    She protested in defence of herself again, before being told she will be back on the stand tomorrow morning.

    The jury did not re-enter the courtroom, and court was adjourned for the day

  5. Who are the jury members?

    The jury was chosen from a pool of eligible local citizens in Minnesota. Among them, 14 including two alternates – were sworn in on Monday. The 15th was dismissed as all of the jurors attended the first day of the trial.

    But what do we know about them?

    The group include three black men, one black woman, three white men, six white women and two multiracial women, according to the court.

    They are urban and suburban, ranging in age from their 20s to their 60s, the New York Times reports.

    The oldest member is a black grandmother in her 60s who said she stopped watching the infamous video of Floyd's death because "it just wasn't something I needed to see". She also claimed she used to live 10 blocks from where he had died.

    Their identities will remain anonymous for their safety.

    Read more here

    A graph showing the jury members
  6. Reporters flood Minneapolis

    It has been another riveting day of the Chauvin trial, and more and more of the world's media have turned up outside the heavily fortified Hennepin County courthouse in downtown Minneapolis.

    One of our journalists at the scene captured the stark difference between what the area looked like on Monday versus today.

    View more on twitter
  7. Court has adjourned

    After a contentious cross-examination, Judge Peter Cahill admonishes the witness for her testy responses to the defence.

    The brief scolding ends and it appears court has adjourned for the day.

    That ends Day Two of the trial. The court will reconvene tomorrow at 09:30 local time.

  8. Has policing changed since George Floyd's death?

    Following protests against George Floyd's death, people asked if demonstrating would change anything.

    Here are some of the changes to US policing introduced since the protests.

    Video content

    Video caption: George Floyd protests: Have the police changed?
  9. Witness: 'We're lucky it was video taped'

    Hanson was off-duty when she came upon George Floyd trapped under the weight of three police officers, not four officers as she had initially told the police

    When the defence reminds her of the discrepancy and says that memories can be foggy, she retorts: "That's why we're lucky it was video taped."

    She recounts how she became increasingly desperate, including swearing at the officers.

    She explains: "There was no point in trying to reason with them anymore because they had just killed somebody."

    Hanson and attorney Eric Nelson are in a somewhat combative exchange, prompting the judge to urge her to allow Nelson to ask his questions and then answer them.

  10. Can viral videos stop police misuse of force?

    Art featuring the face of George Floyd

    Many of the witnesses in court today filmed Floyd's arrest - and Hanson, the current witness, remarked that it was a good thing the incident was filmed.

    "We're lucky it was video taped," she told the defence lawyer, because memories are less reliable than camera footage.

    For more than five minutes, Darnella rambled on Facebook Live about the killing she had witnessed - repeating over and over again that she had video evidence.

    Had it not been for that video and other footage from bystanders, it's likely that Floyd's death would never have sparked global outrage. But does that make viral videos, shot on the phone in your hand, an effective check on police misuse of force?

    Read more here on whether viral videos can stop police brutality

  11. Witness: 'Abnormal response time' from paramedics

    The witness says that there was "an abnormal response time" from emergency medics.

    She is implying that, based on how she observed the scene, it took longer for medical assistance to arrive than should have taken.

    She says the closest fire station was only three blocks away.

    She adds that, given the scale of the emergency, both an ambulance and a fire crew should have arrived on the scene in about three minutes.

    She said she "knew something was wrong" because the fire truck arrived after the ambulance left, leading her to believe there was some kind of miscommunication or error in calling in for medical assistance.

  12. Defence questions Hanson

    The defence is cross-examining Hanson, engaging in a line of questioning about her job and her actions on that day.

    Attorney Eric Nelson asks if bystanders yelling at her would distract her in her work as a firefighter or as a paramedic.

    Hansen refuses to budge and repeatedly asserts she would be "confident enough in my training" to ignore them.

    The exchanges are bristly and somewhat combative, but Hanson remains composed in her answers to testy questions.

  13. 'I feel heavy as a black American'

    Speaking of the day of Floyd's death, the witness, Genevieve Hanson, said that one of the things she felt afterwards was concern for black friends and acquaintances in Minneapolis.

    Last year, BBC Minute spoke to people in the city who were protesting against the death of George Floyd.

    Young African Americans told the BBC that they were scared for their safety.

    Kyla Berges, a protester, said: "I feel heavy as a black American."

    Video content

    Video caption: Young African-Americans in Minneapolis say they are scared for their safety.
  14. The emotional exhaustion of watching the trial

    Samantha Granville

    BBC News, Minneapolis

    "I just want justice to be served," said Roland Jackson who looked up to check on the Derek Chauvin trial while getting some breakfast inside the Cup Foods at George Floyd Square on March 29, 2021

    Many of the community organisers say they are exhausted and experiencing “emotional atrophy”.

    It’s hard to relive the incident, knowing it happened in their neighbourhood and could have easily been one of their family members.

    They say there’s been no break in the trauma cycle in the past ten months.

    Some folks tried to watch the trial together at the George Floyd memorial square but weather and technical issues made it difficult.

    So, people are left to watch alone, without a support group present and it’s “painful and infuriating”.

    Many community members are trying to be available for each other over text and meet up after work so they all have a shoulder to lean on at the end of the long trial days.

  15. Witness: 'This human was denied the assistance he needed'

    Unable to assist Floyd, Hansen joined other bystanders in recording the incident.

    She remembers being "in disbelief" as the ambulance carrying Floyd left the scene.

    "There was a man being killed and, had I had access to him, I would have been able to provide medical assistance to the best of my abilities," she says.

    "This human was denied that."

    Hansen was among the witnesses who "called the police on the police", a claim made by the prosecution earlier in the day.

    Chauvin's lawyer Eric Nelson is now questioning Hansen on behalf of the defence.

  16. Witness: 'I pled and was desperate'

    Chauvin trial

    The witness says that she was not allowed to approach George Floyd.

    Tears welling up in her eyes, and she says she was "totally distressed" when the officers prevented her from helping the unconscious Floyd.

    "I tried to be reasonable and then I tried to be assertive," she recalls, of her desperate attempts to help.

    "I pled and was desperate."

  17. Witness: 'I needed to know whether he had a pulse'

    Hanson says it was obvious to her that George Floyd had lost consciousness because he was unable to respond to painful stimuli.

    "What I needed to know was whether he had a pulse," she says, adding that Chauvin had "his hand in his pocket".

    "He looked so comfortable. He was not distributing his weight onto the car or onto the pavement".

    She says Chauvin's colleague Tou Thao disputed that she was really a paramedic, telling her that she wouldn't try to intervene if she really was who she said was.

    And yet, Hanson, visibly emotional, says: "That's exactly what I should have done".

  18. A betrayal of the police force

    Tara McKelvey

    BBC News, Minneapolis

    Rune Hopkins, 32

    During the trial, the prosecuting attorney, Jerry Blackwell, has cast the former officer, Derek Chauvin, as a man who broke violated police standards of conduct.

    On Monday, Blackwell told the jury that Chauvin had brought dishonour to others who serve as police: He “betrayed his badge”, said Blackwell, emphasising that Chauvin is on trial as an individual, not the entire police force.

    Here in town, many people feel ambivalent about the police. As one resident, Rune Hopkins, 32, a former electronics engineering student, says, there are plenty of dedicated officers but also some who are unprofessional.

    “There’s going to be good and bad in every job,” he tells me.

    He says he got to know some of the officers when he was younger: he wanted to join the marines and become a sniper, and took a training course with officers.

    “They’re good guys. I respect them,” he says. He points out that there are extra measures now in place to make sure the bad officers, “dirty cops”, he says, are held accountable.

    “Nowadays there are cameras everywhere, and they got to be careful.”

    Today in the courthouse, the jury is hearing more about the actions of the former officer, Chauvin, based on images that were taken of him, and they will decide how they view his conduct, and then render a verdict.

  19. Witness: 'His face was smushed into the ground'

    The witness Genevieve Hanson says that, when she stumbled upon the scene of George Floyd's arrest, she recognised Derek Chauvin's face from his involvement during her previous shift.

    Recounting what she saw, she says "three grown men putting their weight on a person - that's too much".

    "His face was smooshed into the ground," she recalls of Floyd.

    "It didn't take long for me to know he was in an altered state of consciousness," she says, explaining that was what prompted her offer to intervene with medical assistance.

    She says "his face looked puffy and swollen" and there was fluid exiting his body.

    "He was being restrained but he wasn't moving."

  20. Police reform, Minneapolis style

    Tara McKelvey

    BBC News, Minneapolis

    chalk drawing on floor

    This trial centres on police conduct, and what former officer Derek Chauvin did.

    Meanwhile, the mayor of Minneapolis, Jacob Frey, has called for changes in policing, but the officers themselves have been leaving in droves.

    Of the 800-some officers, only about 600 are working; the others are on extended leave, mainly because of trauma related to the violence, and the burning of a police precinct.

    Travarus Sayers, 25, an auto-body technician, says the number of officers in his neighbourhood, near the courthouse, has gone down dramatically.

    As a result, he says, there’s a jump in petty crime.

    The city, and its policing system, needs an overhaul, he tells me: recent events, he explains, have led to “a kind of re-thinking of whoever’s going to be put in office, whether mayor, or whatever”.