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Summary

  1. Switzerland signs deal to return more Abacha money to Nigeria
  2. Ethiopian students protest in Addis Ababa over Oromo issue
  3. African leaders call to free students' minds to create scientific innovations
  4. Nigeria's president says MTN "contributed to the casualties" from Boko Haram
  5. Al-Shabab says the US exaggerated the death toll from its air strike
  6. Benin's prime minister into presidential run-off vote
  7. US paedophile sentenced to 40 years for crimes in Kenya
  8. Email stories and comments to africalive@bbc.co.uk - Tuesday 8 March 2016

Live Reporting

By Hugo Williams and Damian Zane

All times stated are UK

Get involved

Scroll down for Tuesday's stories

We'll be back tomorrow

That's all for today from the BBC Africa Live page. Listen to the Africa Today podcast and keep up-to-date with developments across the continent on the BBC News website.  

A reminder of today’s African proverb:

Chameleons change colour to match the earth. The earth doesn't change colour to match the chameleon."

A Senegalese proverb sent by Julian Dzikunu, Accra, Ghana

Click here to send your African proverbs.

And we leave you with this picture of bloodhound "Cleo" with her handler in South Africa's Kruger National Park. The dogs have been trained to track the scent of poachers.

dog on hind legs with handler
EPA

Kidnapped charity workers released in DR Congo

Three employees from the international charity Save the Children who were kidnapped last Thursday in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been released.

The men were taken when their vehicle was attacked in the Lubero region, in the east of the country.

Save the Children have confirmed that the men are safe and the UN humanitarian mission in DR Congo tweeted the news.

View more on twitter

No details were given about the circumstances of the mens' release. 

Nigerian female scientist: 'My brain is what matters'

Grace Itunuoluwa Akinwande, from Nigeria, is doing a master's degree in mathematics at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Senegal - one of 12 female scientists in a group of 54.

"I love the fact I can interact with people from different fields, like physics and computer science," Ms Itunuoluwa Akinwande says about her placement studying graph theory.

"What is in your brain" is what counts when competing with male scientists, she adds.

The Nigerian mathematician spoke to the BBC ahead of the Next Einstein Forum, which is under way in Senegal and brings together key figures in science, policy, industry and society in Africa.

Cambridge University bows to pressure over Benin bronze

A statue of a cockerel which was one of the Benin Bronzes looted by British soldiers form Nigeria in the 19th Century has been removed from display at Cambridge University, following calls for it to be repatriated, the UK's Guardian newspaper reports. 

The future of the cockerel, known as the Okukor, will now be discussed by administrators at Jesus College, to decide the future of the statue, including possible repatriation to Africa.    

Nigeria has made repeated calls for the Benin Bronzes to be repatriated, describing them as part of its cultural heritage, the paper adds. 

View more on twitter

BBC Witness: The looting of the Benin Bronzes

Wade assets seized by France 'transferred to Senegal'

France has seized assets worth $29m (£20m) from Senegal's flamboyant former politician Karim Wade, a legal representative of Senegal has said, AFP news agency reports.

Ownership of two companies and six luxury apartments has been transferred to Senegal's government, Antoine Diome told AFP.

Wade, 47, is serving a six-year jail term in Senegal for corruption.

His father, Abdoulaye Wade, ruled the former French colony for 12 years, and appointed him to a powerful ministry.

President Macky Sall's government vowed to tackle corruption after winning fiercely contested elections in 2012.

Karim Wade
AFP
Karim Wade has been in prison since 2013

Tanzanian women imagine 'Letters to my younger self'

If you had a chance to give advice and encouragement to your younger self what would you say?

The BBC's Tulanana Bohela in Tanzania's main city Dar es Salaam asked several women to imagine what they would say as part of International Women's Day celebrations.

Anna Mghwira, who ran for president is last year's elections, says "don't stop singing, it's good for your heart and soul".

You can see more from her here:

Tear gas fired at Cairo taxi drivers at Uber protest

Security forces have discharged tear gas canisters to clear road blockages caused by taxi drivers protesting the introduction of the taxi-hailing app Uber in the Egyptian capital Cairo.

Lamia el-Etriby, who witnessed the events said the canisters were launched as a response to the taxi drivers leaving their cars.

"We are not leaving until an official comes and gives us his word that all these apps will be shut down in Egypt," Sherif Ali, a taxi driver and one of the protest organisers told AP news agency. 

#Taxi drivers block #Cairo roads in protest against Uber, Careem | #Egypt ow.ly/ZcTxJ
#Taxi drivers block #Cairo roads in protest against Uber, Careem | #Egypt ow.ly/ZcTxJ
#Taxi drivers block #Cairo roads in protest against Uber, Careem | #Egypt ow.ly/ZcTxJ

#Taxi drivers block #Cairo roads in protest against Uber, Careem | #Egypt ow.ly/ZcTxJ

Libyan women defy conflict with Benghazi celebrations

Rana Jawad

BBC North Africa correspondent, Tunis

women dressed in wonderful outfits at the festival
Nur Benzabeh

A group of Libyan women have been taking part in a festival to mark International Woman’s Day in what may seem like the most unlikely of settings – Benghazi. 

The eastern city has been battered by nearly two years of violent conflict.

Nur Benzabeh, a civil society activist in in the city said the event was “a huge step in shaking up the community to the importance of women”.  She says she hopes it will spread a “culture of braveness…under crisis”.

The event brought together women, young and old, and children in song, dance and poetry at a theatre in the city.

A popular local boy-band called Guys Underground also held a special live performance paying tribute to the ladies, much to the excitement of some young squealing fans.

Benghazi with cars on the road and smoke in the background
Getty Images

Switzerland signs Abacha money deal in Nigeria

Switzerland has agreed to return to Nigeria millions of dollars stolen by the former military ruler Sani Abacha, AFP news agency reports.

It says that Swiss authorities struck a deal with Nigeria to hand back $321m (£226m).

The agreement was signed in Abuja by Nigeria's attorney general and a visiting Swiss delegation - and seems to confirm last year’s announcement by the Geneva prosecutor's office about the return this money.

“We guarantee that recovered assets would be put to uses for which they have been intended,” Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo said in a statement released by his office. 

The money will only be returned once its agreed exactly how this will be done.

Gen Abacha was in power from 1993 to 1998 and is thought to have stolen more than $2bn of public funds - some of it being deposited in Swiss bank accounts.

Switzerland has already returned more than $720m of the money.

Sani Abacha
AFP
Sani Abacha governed Nigeria from 1993 to 1998, when he died in office

Two dead and five missing following DR Congo mining accident

Two people have died and five are missing following an accident at a mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Glencore, a Switzerland-based company which has shares in Katanga Mining Limited, said a "geotechnical failure" in a wall at the copper and cobalt mine led to the accident near where the miners were working.

It confirmed that a rescue operation for the five missing miners is ongoing with two emergency rooms set up to support the search. 

A counselling centre for relatives of the miners has opened nearby. 

Sarkodie opens up about female inspirations

Ghanaian rapper and hip life artist Sarkodie dropped into the BBC studios in London earlier.

And fittingly, on International Women's Day (see earlier post at 12:47), the superstar shared a touching story with Focus On Africa radio's Bolo Mosuro about the influence his grandmother has had on his music.

View more on twitter

Watch Sarkodie perform his track Adonai exclusively for the BBC's Destination Africa season in 2015.

View more on youtube

Nigerian pipers out for Zuma

Pictures have just come in of South Africa's President Jacob Zuma being welcomed at Nigeria's presidential villa today by military pipers and a guard of honour.

Jacob Zuma being welcomed in Nigeria
AFP
Jacob Zuma being welcomed in Nigeria
AFP

It's the first day of his two-day state visit.

Mr Zuma had a meeting with President Muhammadu Buhari and spoke at the National Assembly.

He was keen to stress what the continent's two economic giants could achieve by working together.

Tetteh continues as Sierra Leone coach

Ghanaian Sellas Tetteh is to continue as caretaker coach of Sierra Leone after his loan agreement was extended.

He will take charge of Sierra Leone's upcoming matches against Gabon.

The games are on the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations qualifying schedule but no points are on offer as Gabon are hosting January's finals.

Sellas Tetteh
Getty Images

Read the full BBC Sport story

Malawian welder builds home-made helicopter

Felix Kambwiri has spent the last four months constructing a helicopter out of scrap metal and fibreglass in his garage, 90km (55 miles) north of the capital Lilongwe, AFP news agency reports.

It hasn't taken off yet, but Felix is optimistic about it taking to the skies, despite its makeshift nature. 

"I would like just to fly for even five minutes to show that I am serious about this and that it is not a joke. This helicopter can fly," he told AFP. 

Felix hasn't yet demonstrated that the helicopter can get off the ground as test flights have been banned until the civil aviation authorities have completed safety checks. 

You can watch the video below: 

View more on youtube

Felix's wife Anne told AFP:  "I was frightened when I heard my husband was developing a helicopter, because he'd never done it before... "but later I accepted it, because everything is possible through God." 

Rare protest in Ethiopia's capital

A small group of students have turned out for a rare protest in Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa, the Reuters news agency reports.

They were demonstrating against the actions of the security forces, who have been accused of a crackdown over a wave of protests in the Oromia region.

Rights groups say that more than 200 people have been killed, a figure that the government disputes.

Reuters reports that Addis Ababa University students marched to the US Embassy with placards saying: "We are not terrorists. Stop killing Oromo people." 

At the last census in 2007, the Oromo made up Ethiopia's biggest ethnic group, at about 25 million people out of a population at the time of nearly 74 million.  

Ethiopian mourner
AFP
The protests on the Oromia region began over a plan to expand Addis Ababa's city boundaries

Zuma: Let's unite to defeat forces that bring suffering

South Africa's President Jacob Zuma has just finished speaking to Nigeria's National Assembly on the first day of his two-day state visit to the country.

He said that South Africa and Nigeria need to work more closely together on political, social, economic and cultural issues.

He also spoke about security on the continent and said: "Let the citizens of Africa march together to defeat all those forces that bring harm and suffering to our continent."

You can watch his speech and the reaction by rewinding the live stream of Nigeria's private Channels TV station:

View more on youtube

'How did Ethiopia stowaway get on board?'

Emmanuel Igunza

BBC Africa, Addis Ababa

Swedish authorities have requested Ethiopia to provide more information on how a stowaway go aboard an Ethiopian Airlines flight and managed to reach the capital, Stockholm.

Police spokesman Kgell Lendgren says they are investigating if this was a case of human trafficking. 

"We are going to send a request with the questions: Can we have the story on how he got on board, when were the containers loaded, by whom and is there any crime we can investigate? But we are happy he is alive," he told the BBC Focus on Africa radio programme.

Ethiopian Airlines is yet to comment on the incident. 

Authorities here in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, will be hard pressed to answer how the stowaway managed to get access to the plane on an otherwise highly secure airport. 

In 2014, another man, who was later identified as an employee of the airline managed to safely get to the same airport in Stockholm aboard an Ethiopian Airlines plane.

Ethiopian Airlines plane
AFP

‘The Bow Tie Boys’: Otty Warmann and Peter Okwoche

BBC Focus on Africa TV presenter Peter Okwoche once harboured ambitions of becoming a hip-hop artist – something he revealed in a recent interview with British-Nigerian artiste Otty Warmann.

The up-and-coming singer, who’s been referred to as the UK’s John Legend, agreed to pass on some tips – and together they performed an impromptu duet, dubbing themselves “The Bow Tie Boys”.

Have a look:

South Africa university shut after protests

Pumza Fihlani

BBC News, Johannesburg

Students at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT)’s Soshanguve campuses, outside the capital, Pretoria, are outraged at the management’s decision to shut down the campuses for a month, according to Eye Witness News. 

The university made the decision yesterday after two weeks of violent demonstrations that saw several clashes between students, private security and the police. 

A group of students are demanding an immediate implementation of free education and an end to out-sourcing services. 

The university says the decision to close the affected campuses was made in order to ensure the safety of students and staff. 

The students were given until this afternoon to vacate the university premises, leading to tensions with some on campus claiming they did not have money to travel home. 

There has been a wave of demonstrations at universities here, many around the issues of racism, financial exclusion of poorer students and the working conditions of black employees.

Demonstrators at the university
AFP

Buhari: MTN contributed to Boko Haram casualties

Jacob Zuma and Muhammadu Buhari
AFP
Jacob Zuma (L) and Muhammadu Buhari (R) addressed the media in Abuja

Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari has said that the South African telecoms firm MTN "contributed to the casualties" caused by Islamist militants Boko Haram.

His comments came during a joint press conference with South Africa's President Jacob Zuma, who is on a two-day state visit.

Mr Buhari was speaking publicly for the first time about the $3.9bn (£2.7bn) fine the Nigerian authorities imposed on MTN its failure to block unregistered sim cards.

He said it was a security issue:

You know how the unregistered [sim cards] are being used by terrorists and between 2009 and today, at least 10,000 Nigerians were killed by Boko Haram, at least 10,000"

Nigeria's president said that other mobile phone operators did comply with the telecoms regulators but "unfortunately, MTN was very very slow and contributed to the casualties".  

UN failing to meet Burundi funding target

Prime Ndikumagenge

BBC Africa, Bujumbura

The UN refugee agency (UNHCR) has told the BBC that it has only managed to raise about 1/40th of the funds it needs to respond to the Burundian refugee crisis. 

Just $4.7m (£3.3m) has been raised of the target of $175 million, a UNHCR official told the BBC's Great Lakes Service. 

The spokesperson said that competing refugee crises in Syria, the Middle East, the Central African Republic and South Sudan were making it very difficult to raise the funds. 

According to official figures, there are about 250,000 Burundian refugees in neighbouring countries including Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda.

burundian refugees
AFP

BBC's WhatsApp series: Young and connected, chapter two

Young and Connected is BBC Africa's first ever WhatsApp series - bringing the story of the rise of youth groups challenging leaders who want to stay in power or who are not accountable. 

Chapter Two of the series covers the Lucha movement in the Democratic Republic of Congo's eastern city of Goma, which has been badly hit by years of conflict. 

The BBC's Maud Jullien went to meet the activists involved.

BBC's WhatsApp series: Young and connected, chapter two

To subscribe to the rest of the Whatsapp series, you can add +44 7734778817 to your phone contacts. Send a message to the number saying "SIGN UP" to receive the videos in English, or "SOUSCRIRE" to the same number for the French editions. 

Zimbabwe cricket team wins opening World Cup fixture

Nick Cavell

BBC Africa Sport

Zimbabwe have won their opening game at the World Twenty 20 Cricket, beating Hong Kong by 14 runs.

Next up for Zimbabwe will be Scotland on Thursday, followed by the final match of the group against Afghanistan on Saturday. 

Only the winners of the group will advance to join the best sides in the world when they start next week - waiting for the victors in Zimbabwe's pool are England, South Africa, Sri Lanka and West Indies.

Zimbabwe"s Vusi Sibanda plays a shot during the opening match of the T20 Cricket World Cup
AFP
Zimbabwe's Vusi Sibanda in action against Hong Kong on Tuesday

Read the full BBC Sport story here

Your views: What's the one thing you would change on #IWD2016

#GetInvolved

For our coverage of International Women's Day, we've asked you: "What's the one change you'd like to see for women where you are?" 

There's a lively discussion happening on the BBC Africa Facebook page, with traditional male perspectives coming up against women who are demanding greater empowerment: 

We need to teach our daughters to take a stand, to be able to stand up for themselves and mean what they say. We are submitted to a lot socially, street harassment, slut shaming etc. Your voice is golden, even when they say it's annoying, young one. Speak up, eventually someone will listen.

Neo Kitso, BBC Africa Facebook

Many of you have also been sending us Twitter messages on the one thing you'd like to see change:

View more on twitter

@BBCAfrica a society where women are encouraged to innovate and be part of the sphere in spaces beyond the domestic and home

View more on twitter

Keep sending your comments in. There are lots of different ways you can get involved:

  • Send a short video (max 30 seconds) to our WhatsApp number +44 7341 070 844
  • Email us on africalive@bbc.co.uk
  • tweet us @bbcafrica
  • comment on our BBC Africa Facebook page

Buhari: MTN in talks to arrange gradual fine payment

Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari has said that the South African telecoms company MTN is trying to negotiate a gradual payment of the multi-billion dollar fine a Nigerian regulator imposed, the Reuters news agency reports.

MTN was fined $3.9bn (£2.4bn) for its failure to cut off unregistered SIM cards.

Mr Buhari's comments come as he is hosting South Africa's President Jacob Zuma:

View more on twitter

Sall: Our youth need to invent and innovate

Macky Sall
Reuters

Senegal's President Macky Sall has just been talking at the opening of the Next Einstein Forum in the capital, Dakar.

The aim is to boost investment in science, technology, engineering and mathematics across Africa.

President Sall said that "we need to urge our youth to invent and innovate".

Rwanda's President Paul Kagame has also been speaking:

View more on twitter
View more on twitter

South Africa to start fracking within a year

Matthew Davies

Editor, BBC Africa Business Report

Exploration for shale gas is set to begin in South Africa within the next 12 months, according to a statement from the government. 

The process, known as fracking, has often caused environmental concerns, but the South African authorities insist it will add "value to the country's mineral wealth". 

Tuesday's statement follows an announcement in South Africa's parliament two weeks ago, in which an official from the country's department of mineral resources said that the first licences for hydraulic fracturing would be issued this year. 

south african power stations
AFP
South Africa does not produce enough energy to meets its needs

Fracking is a process where fluids are used at high pressure deep underground to break up rock in order to release oil and gas deposits - it often raises concerns among environmental campaigners who claim it can, amongst other things, pollute groundwater. 

Many oil companies have recently adopted a wait-and-see stance when it comes to fracking in South Africa, given the low oil price and the delays in awarding exploration licences. 

The government argues that the country could benefit from fracking.

Read more: What is fracking and why is it controversial?

Kagame: Free Africa's brightest minds

Paul Kagame
NSF

Rwanda's President Paul Kagame is speaking at the opening of the Next Einstein Forum in Senegal's capital, Dakar (see 11:07 entry).

I can't think of few missions more essential than enabling Africa's brightest people to flourish as independent thinkers."

Paul KagamePresident of Rwanda

You can follow the opening ceremony here.

Nigeria's senate 'praises women'

To mark International Women's Day Nigeria's senate has been discussing a motion calling for equality for women.

Its official Twitter account has highlights from the discussion:

View more on twitter

So far so normal, but then a senator urged his colleagues to "take care of women":

View more on twitter

Then there was a joke about taking more than one wife:

View more on twitter

And then another male senator spoke about the "good nature of women":

View more on twitter

Egypt student agrees to leave US after Trump comment

A student pilot from Egypt has agreed to leave the US after posting on Facebook that the world would thank him if he killed Donald Trump.

Emadeldin Elsayed, 23, was not charged with a crime but the US authorities sought to deport him, his attorney, Hani Bushra, said.

Immigration authorities said they would allow him to return home voluntarily as long as he departed by 5 July.

Mr Elsayed is being held in a jail in California after his visa was revoked.

Mr Bushra said on Monday that Mr Elsayed's detention was illegal.

Read more from BBC News Online.

Emadeldin Elsayed
AP

Can the next Einstein be African?

A major conference aimed at promoting science on the continent has just opened in Senegal's capital, Dakar.

It's called the Next Einstein Forum (NEF) and is bringing together scientists and politicians.

Rwanda's President Paul Kagame is opening the conference with Senegal's President Macky Sall.

View more on twitter
View more on twitter

You can follow the events here.

SA row over Mbeki's defence of HIV stance

Milton Nkosi

BBC Africa, Johannesburg

Newspaper frontpage
BBC

This morning South African newspapers, social media pages and talk shows are dominated by discussions about former President Thabo Mbeki's HIV-Aids policy.

They've been ignited by a denial contained in his weekly blog published on Monday aimed at setting the record straight that he ever challenged the notion that HIV does not cause Aids.

"I never said 'HIV does not cause Aids'... What I said is that 'a virus cannot cause a syndrome'"

During his presidency Mr Mbeki was accused of denialism when it came to the issue of HIV/Aids.  

A syndrome [is] a collection of well-known diseases, with well-known causes. They are not, together, caused and cannot be caused by one virus! I said that HIV might be a contributory cause of immune deficiency – the ID in Aids!"

The 73-year-old former head of state said in 2006 that HIV was the ninth leading cause of death in South Africa, while tuberculosis was at the top, according to Statistics South Africa.

Mark Heywood, a leading HIV activist who led the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) at the time, reacted by saying that the letter did not offer an apology or show remorse for Mr Mbeki's Aids policy, which threatened the lives of many South Africans. 

He told local station Talk Radio 702: “I think that Thabo Mbeki’s latest intervention on HIV-Aids is tragic, sad, flimsy and embarrassing.”

Thabo Mbeki
BBC

What's the one thing you would change? #IWD2016

#IWD2016 is trending across the world as people take to social media to celebrate International Women's Day. 

We've gathered some of the most popular tweets below from followers of @BBCAfrica.

And on today's Africa Live Page, we're asking all our readers to answer this question: 

"What's the one change you would like to see for women where you are?"

There are lots of ways you can get in touch to give us your answer. 

  • Send a short video (max 30 seconds) to our WhatsApp number +44 7341 070 844
  • Email us on africalive@bbc.co.uk
  • tweet us @bbcafrica
  • comment on our BBC Africa Facebook page

We'll feature a selection of your responses on the BBC Africa Live page throughout the day.

View more on twitter
View more on twitter
View more on twitter

Al-Shabab death toll 'exaggerated by US'

The Somali Islamist militant group al-Shabab says the US has exaggerated the death toll from Saturday's air strike on its fighters. 

But it has confirmed that the attack happened in territory it controls in Somalia.

The US military says the operation involving drones and manned aircraft killed 150 jihadis.

While Washington will see the attack as as a success, the fact that al-Shabab could assemble more than 100 fighters in one place shows it is not a spent force, reports BBC Africa Security Correspondent Tomi Oladipo.

Al-Shabab fighters
AFP

Lengthy jail term for US missionary who abused Kenyan orphans

A former US missionary has been sentenced to 40 years in prison for sexually abusing children at an orphanage in Kenya.

Matthew Lane Durham, 21, had committed "heinous crimes on the most vulnerable victims", the US court said.

Durham targeted orphans while working as a volunteer at the Upendo Children's Home in Kenya's capital, Nairobi, between April and June 2014.

He is the latest charity worker in Kenya to be convicted of sex crimes.

Matthew Lane Durham
AP

Read the full BBC News story

MTN fine 'to overshadow' Zuma visit to Nigeria

Martin Patience

BBC News, Nigeria correspondent

South Africa's President Jacob Zuma is expected to hold talks with his Nigerian counterpart Muhammadu Buhari and address the national parliament on his two-day visit to the country.

The official trip is being seen as an attempt to improve relations between Africa’s two largest economies.  

Several government ministers are joining President Zuma on a trip that’s expected to focus on trade. 

But it will be overshadowed by the multi-billion dollar fine imposed by Nigeria on South Africa telecoms giant MTN for failing to disconnect unregistered SIM cards. 

MTN has so far paid out $250m (£175m) and is currently trying to negotiate a settlement. 

Other South African firms claim they’re being unfairly targeted by regulatory bodies. 

But President Buhari’s government insists that regulations must be implemented as part of its efforts to clean up corruption within the country 

MTN vendor in Lagos
AFP

Ethiopia stowaway seeks asylum in Sweden

aeroplane mid flight
Thinkstock

A man who stowed away on a long-haul flight from Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa, to Stockholm has requested asylum after surviving the perilous journey, Swedish media report.

The 27-year-old man was discovered by staff on Monday at Stockholm's Arlanda airport, was described as "exhausted but alive" by emergency services, Swedish news website The Local reports

Read more: The medical conundrum of plane stowaways

Benin's PM into presidential run-off vote

The second round of Benin's presidential election is set to be between Prime Minister Lionel Zinsou and businessman Patrice Talon, according to provisional results announced by the country's electoral commission, the AFP news agency reports.

Mr Zinsou took 28.4% of the vote and Mr Talon came second with 24.8%.

They topped a field of 33 candidates in Sunday's first round.

The winner will replace President Thomas Boni Yayi, who has been in power for two terms.

Lionel Zinsou
Reuters
Lionel Zinsou has been prime minister since last year

Zuma flies into Nigeria

South Africa's President Jacob Zuma has arrived in Nigeria for a two-day state visit.

View more on twitter

In an official statement President Zuma's office says the two countries have "good bilateral political, economic and social relations underpinned by strong historical ties".

It makes no mention of the more than $3bn (£2.1bn) fine imposed recently by Nigerian regulators on the South African mobile phone company MTN, though there is speculation in South Africa that this issue will be raised.

Nigeria and South Africa are the continent's two largest economies.

Wise words

Today’s African proverb:

Chameleons change colour to match the earth. The earth doesn't change colour to match the chameleon."

A Senegalese proverb sent by Julian Dzikunu, Accra, Ghana
Chameleon
AFP

Click here to send us your proverb.