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Live Reporting

Edited by George Bowden

All times stated are UK

  1. That's a wrap. Day 2 at COP26

    World Leaders pose for a group photo at an evening reception to mark the opening day of COP26 on the sidelines of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, Scotland on November 1, 2021
    Image caption: World Leaders pose for a group photo at an evening reception for COP26

    We're pausing our live page after Day 2 of COP26. Before we go, here's a quick look back at the highlights:

    • India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi made the first public announcement so far - committing to net zero emissions by 2070
    • The promise from Modi is big - India had previously failed to announce a net zero target - but will still be a disappointment to many because one of the key goals of the summit is for all countries to commit to net zero by 2060
    • A group of more than 100 world leaders have pledged to end deforestation by 2030 including Brazil which is home to the Amazon rainforest
    • Naturalist David Attenborough urged the summit delegates to "rewrite our story", imploring them to use COP26 as a climate inflection point
    • US President Joe Biden apologised for former President Donald Trump's decision to pull out of the Paris climate accord, saying it set the world back. He made the comments shortly after his own opening remarks, where he warned of the devastating economic costs wrought by inaction on climate
    • Prince William, Prince Charles, Kate and Camilla have all been spotted in Glasgow, but the Queen was a notable royal absence. Advised to stay home by doctors after a recent hospital visit, she recorded a video calling on leaders to great a safer future for the planet.

    We'll be back tomorrow at 08:00GMT for Day 3. There will be more speeches from world leaders as well as a special focus on deforestation. We'll be looking out for an announcement of a new deal on forests - crucial to keeping global heating to 1.5C.

    Today's live coverage has been brought to you by Paul McLaren, George Bowden, Emma Harrison, Doug Faulkner, Gary Kitchener, James Clarke, Joseph Lee, Holly Honderich, George Wright, Robert Greenall and Kevin Ponniah.

  2. Climate Change Debate ends

    The BBC Climate Change Debate has ended.

    Múte Bourup Egede, prime minister of Greenland, finished the debate by saying he wanted to "push all the countries - especially big countries with big economies - to collaborate with all of the countries in the world to invest in green energy".

    "This is for the future."

  3. Reality Check

    Has the US quadrupled its climate funding to developing nations?

    Gina McCarthy, a climate adviser for the White House, said the US was “quadrupling its commitments” on climate aid.

    In April, President Joe Biden said he would double funding to developing nations to tackle climate change. Then, in September at the UN General Assembly, he said he would “work with the Congress to double that number again” – quadrupling former President Obama’s commitment.

    These figures are relative to Mr Obama’s spending, not that of his immediate predecessor, because former President Donald Trump mostly withdrew from the US’s international commitments. But Mr Biden hasn’t yet managed to pass his budget in Congress, which has the power to make laws. So that commitment is not set in stone yet.

    Read more about what the biggest polluters are doing to tackle climate change.

  4. Reality Check

    How is the government encouraging people to buy electric cars?

    “One of the things that government is trying to do is to incentivise through grants, the acquisition of these [electric] cars,” said Kwasi Kwarteng, UK Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.

    The UK government offers a grant of £2,500 to those looking to buy an electric car.

    However, the government has reduced the grant size over the past few years. The maximum grant started off at £5,000 in 2011, dropped to £4,500 in 2016, then £3,500 in 2018 and £3,000 in 2020 before being reduced to its current level.

    As well as the new reduced amount, the Department for Transport has also narrowed the eligibility criteria - restricting the grant for cars costing below £35,000.

    The move was heavily criticised by industry groups and car manufacturers who called it "disappointing".

    Read more about the move to electric cars.

  5. Colombia minister on lack of electricity access


    Colombia's Minister for Mining & Energy, Diego Mesa, says that there are still about 500,000 families in Colombia without access to electricity.

    "We have one billion people around the world with no access to electricity who need to use wood to cook which impacts on deforestation – we have to fix that as well."

  6. Reality Check

    Can carbon capture really save us?

    Colombia’s Minister of Energy and Mining, Diego Mesa, said carbon capture could help on the path to net zero.

    “The problem is not the source of energy, the problem is emissions," he said.

    This is the idea that instead of drastically reducing the amount of carbon dioxide we emit, we could at least partially rely on technology to remove carbon dioxide that’s already been emitted and store it or use it for energy.

    Some of these technologies do already exist but they would have to be scaled up enormously to make a dent – at great expense. Some of these processes themselves use a lot of energy to separate the carbon dioxide.

    And there are scientists who fear the promise of carbon capture technology might act as a “blank cheque” for people to keep polluting at the same rate, in the so-far untested belief the damage can be reversed at some point in the future.

  7. Kwarteng booed over Cambo oilfield


    Asked about the new Cambo oilfield to the west of the Shetland Islands, Business Secretary Kwasi Kwarteng is booed as he says that the UK government will not rule out granting a licence for operations.

    He says he won’t shut the door on a quarter of a million jobs and that the climate change debate is about transition.

    "It's a licence that was granted 20 years ago and it's a planning decision that we're going to examine. That's all I'm going to say about that," Kwarteng says, to loud boos.

    "I can't simply say to the quarter of a million people who work in the sector in the UK that we're going to just close the door on the sector," he adds.

  8. Biden investing to grow economy 'not sacrifice it'

    White House National Climate Advisor, Gina McCarthy, says that we’re being asked by young people to stop destroying the planet.

    President Biden is investing $550bn to grow the economy "not to sacrifice it," she says.

    "These are investments not penalties, and as soon as China and Brazil figure out that they are on the losing end of the proposition – they’ll be running to catch up."

  9. US climate adviser asked about Biden's huge motorcade

    Gina McCarthy is asked about criticism of President Joe Biden's huge motorcade at COP26.

    Kirsty Wark points out that the US motorcade was more than 80 vehicles long during a recent Biden visit to the Vatican.

    “We have to make change but it’s going to take more than looking at whether or not its a big motorcade," McCarthy responds.

  10. China and Russia 'can't decide fate of the world'

    Gina McCarthy

    More now from the BBC's Big Global Climate Debate, under way on BBC One.

    White House National Climate Advisor, Gina McCarthy, says that Russia and China should be at COP26.

    But she says that doesn't mean we should allow them to "decide the fate of the world".

    "We should show them they are missing out if they do not join us and take action" McCarthy says.

    "I'm disappointed they are not here but they should not be allowed to dictate the lack of action. They can’t dictate the lack of action. Science is telling us what to do and we’re here to get it done."

  11. Experts react to the deal ending deforestation in many countries by 2030

    A truck loaded with logs in Yemen

    In the past half hour it's been confirmed that leaders from more than 100 countries will sign an agreement to end deforestation by 2030 - providing funds to support and restore forests.

    But what do experts think of the first major deal from COP26?

    Prof Simon Lewis at University College London, an expert in climate and forests, says: “It is good news to have a political commitment to end deforestation from so many countries, and significant funding to move forward on that journey."

    Quote Message: "That indigenous peoples are finally being acknowledged as key protectors of forests is particularly welcome, alongside additional funding for rainforest nations and obligations on consumer countries and companies to clean up their supply chains. from Prof Simon Lewis University College London
    Prof Simon LewisUniversity College London

    He adds: “The real weakness is a failure to tackle growing demand for products grown on rainforest land. But that would mean tackling high levels of meat consumption in places like the UK and US, and Boris Johnson has no appetite for that, so can’t convene world leaders around that critical aspect of stopping deforestation.”

    And Chatham House Executive Director Sustainability and author of Rethinking the Amazonian Jungle, Ana Jung, called the announcement an important building block for COP26 success but says details will be key.

  12. BBC's Big Global Climate Debate begins

    The debate studio

    The BBC's Big Global Climate Debate is now under way for viewers in the UK on BBC One, the iPlayer and by clicking the play button at the top of this page.

    We will be bringing you the biggest updates from the debate live here.

    Sitting on the panel are:

    • Kwasi Kwarteng, UK Secretary of State for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
    • Gina McCarthy, White House National Climate Advisor, USA
    • Múte Bourup Egede, Prime Minister of Greenland
    • Diego Mesa, Minister of Energy and Mining, Colombia
  13. BreakingWorld leaders promise to end deforestation by 2030

    Cattle in a forest

    A group of leaders at COP26 will sign the climate change conference's first major deal on Tuesday when they promise to stop deforestation by 2030.

    Signatories will include Brazil, where large parts of the Amazon rainforest have been cut down, and Indonesia, the world's largest exporter of palm oil. Felling trees contributes to climate change because it depletes forests that absorb vast amounts of the warming gas CO2.

    More money is also being promised to protect and restore forests. More than 100 countries say they will sign the deal, covering about 85% of the world's forests.

    And governments of 28 countries will commit to remove deforestation from the global trade of food and other agricultural products such as palm oil, soya and cocoa.

    To stop deforestation and break the link between tree loss and agriculture, almost £14 billion ($19.2 billion) of public and private funding is being pledged.

    Some of this will go to developing countries to restore damaged land, tackle wildfire and support indigenous communities.

    Read more here.

  14. Coming up

    Climate Debate graphic

    We'll be bringing you coverage of the BBC Global Climate Debate - which begins at 22:35 GMT.

    Viewers in the UK can watch the programme on BBC One, the BBC iPlayer and by clicking the play button at the top of this page.

    A panel of leading international political figures has come together to take questions from young people in the studio in Glasgow - and around the world - on the challenges presented by climate change.

    Presented by Kirsty Wark, the debate gives young people across the world the chance to hold their leaders to account on action for climate change.

  15. 'People from most-affected countries are under-represented'

    Hilda Flavia Nakabuye

    Hilda Flavia Nakabuye, 24, is a climate change activist from Kampala, the Ugandan capital. Her activism was prompted by the impact of climate change on her family's lives, as she explains here:

    "When I was still young I had a plantation with my family, but we lost it due to the effects of climate change. Heavy rains, floods, strong winds, unpredictable seasons, dry streams, all these things.

    "In 2017 I joined a discussion at my school that was about climate change. I then understood that the effects my family were feeling was because of climate change.

    "I started to speak up as a climate activist and as a campaigner. We travelled to schools and communities and in 2019 I started the Fridays For Future movement in Uganda. Now we have a network of 53,000.

    "We were arrested a few times by the police because of the climate strikes - they alleged we might be a political party.

    "I have very little hope in COP26 because I haven't seen any concrete actions being taken in the last 25 COPs. Many people are being under-represented, especially from the most affected countries, mostly from the global south.

    "We are quickly losing our hope in the leaders because of their inaction. Our survival and the survival of the future generations depend on our actions today.

    "It’s either we come up with concrete actions or we fail all generations to come."

  16. Reality Check

    How significant are India’s new climate pledges?

    India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi has long resisted setting a date for his country to achieve net zero - balancing out greenhouse gas emissions with measures to remove them from the atmosphere.

    On Monday, he said India would now achieve this by 2070.

    This is a significantly longer timescale than the UK, EU and the US which have set targets of 2050 to reach this goal.

    It is also a decade later than China’s 2060 target.

    Modi also said India would aim to supply 50% of all its energy requirements from renewable sources by 2030 with a non-fossil fuel generating capacity of 500 gigawatts (GW).

    India currently generates a little over 100GW from non-fossil sources and is unlikely to hit an earlier target of 175 gigawatts by 2022.

    Although India has expanded its capacity to generate power from sources such as wind and solar, it still relies heavily on coal.

    It currently powers about 70% of the country’s electricity grid.

    You can read more here about India's climate challenge.

    Chart showing India CO2 emissions by fuel type
  17. Charles appears in good spirits as PM praises his climate efforts

    Boris Johnson, Prince William, the Duchess of Cornwall and Prince Charles

    Prince Charles has been having a busy day at the COP26 summit and appeared to be in good spirits this evening as Boris Johnson praised his environmental efforts over the years.

    The Prince of Wales spoke to the assembled world leaders this afternoon before a visit to a distillery run by a former drug addict who had been helped by the Prince's Trust charity.

    Ryan Longmuir, who started Regis Banqueting 18 years ago after receiving a £5,000 loan from the charity, handed the prince a glass of whisky and said "it's great meeting him".

    Charles then joined other royals and some of the political leaders at a dinner reception at Glasgow's Kelvingrove Museum.

    The prince was again seen being handed a drink and this time, Reuters reports, he joked: "I think I need it after today."

    He may have been referring to a moment when he briefly lost his footing as he made his way to the stage to deliver this speech earlier in the day.

    But one man who apparently didn't think the prince had had a bad day was the UK prime minister.

    Our political editor Laura Kuenssberg has tweeted that Boris Johnson complimented the Prince of Wales at the reception, saying: ‘You heard me earlier on say this was a job for James Bond. Well we have somebody who drives an electric Aston Martin who has a plan to defuse the ticking time bomb.

    "l just want to say you're a prophet without honour and you've been right for a very long time."

  18. Merkel bows out with plea for transformation

    Angela Merkel

    Outgoing German Chancellor Angela Merkel said earlier that a comprehensive transformation in ways of working is needed to cut CO2 emissions - and not just action from governments.

    "That's why I want to make a clear plea here for carbon pricing. This already exists within the EU and also in China, for example," she says.

    Carbon pricing - effectively a tax on CO2 emissions - has been called for in some industries, such as shipping, as a means of forcing polluting businesses to clean up their trade.

    Merkel said it would be a way to ensure industries and businesses had an incentive to develop technology that would be better for the global climate.

    That's a very clear expression of what we need to do in a decisive decade, she said.

    "Then we will know how to best arrange CO2-free mobility, CO2-free industry and CO2-free processes of our life."

  19. What's your diet's carbon footprint?

    Kilograms of greenhouse gas emissions per serving

    One of the ways we can reduce our carbon footprint is through what we eat. Switching to a plant-based diet can help fight climate change, according to a major report by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which says the West's high consumption of meat and dairy is fuelling global warming.

    If you’re eating beef three to five times a week, over an entire year your consumption is contributing 1,611kg to your annual greenhouse gas emissions. That's the equivalent of driving a regular petrol car 4,112 miles (6,618km), or taking five return flights from London to Malaga.

    Many are already taking note of this. Daily meat consumption in the UK has fallen by 17% in the past decade, a study has shown.

    To find out the climate impact of what you eat and drink, choose from one of the 34 items in our calculator and pick how often you have it.

  20. Biden: 'No substitute' for face-to-face meeting

    US President Joe Biden greets Prince William at a reception to mark the opening day of COP26

    As the day draws to a close in Glasgow, US President Joe Biden says on Twitter that he hopes those present at the summit "meet the moment on climate, and kick off a decade of ambition, action, and innovation to preserve our shared future".

    "There's no substitute for face-to-face diplomacy," he writes.

    Biden is among 25,000 delegates from about 200 countries - and from every region in the world - in Glasgow this week, gathered to share plans for how they will cut emissions by 2030.

    The much-anticipated United Nations gathering is one of the biggest summits the UK has ever hosted.

    Over two weeks, we can expect a flurry of announcements from countries promising to curb emissions, like switches to electric cars or an expedited phase-out of coal.

    By the end of the conference, some form of declaration is expected, with every country required to sign on.