Smoking in Britain has more than halved and people are drinking on fewer nights of the week, according to a snapshot survey covering the past 40 years.
The General Lifestyle Survey indicates 45% of adults smoked in 1974 compared with 20% in 2011.
The proportion of men who said they drank alcohol at least five days a week fell from 22% in 2005 to 16% in 2011.
The proportion of women drinking five days a week dropped from 13% to 9% over the same period.
There have been repeated campaigns to reduce smoking, which can cause heart problems and lung cancer.
The role of smoking in society has changed significantly, with smoking bans in the work-place coming into force across the UK and bans on cigarette advertising.
Smoking now looks less of a male-dominated habit. Men are still more likely to be smokers - 21% of men now smoke compared with 19% of women. However, back in 1974 the gulf was much larger - 51% of men and 41% of women.
The statistics suggest married people are less likely to smoke than singles, and the unemployed are more likely to smoke than their neighbours in work.
Older people are more likely to have a regular drink, the data indicates. Men and women aged 45 and above are more likely to drink alcohol on five or more days each week than younger generations.
The most significant changes in the past decade were in 16-24-year-olds.
In young men, the proportion drinking more than four units on their biggest drinking session of the week fell from 46% to 32% between 2005 and 2011. There was a similar pattern in women.
However, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) figures do not look at the amount drinkers are consuming overall. This is thought to be 40% higher now than it was 40 years ago, despite a drop since 2004.
Alan Maryon-Davis, honorary professor of public health at King's College London, said the figures for alcohol and smoking were very encouraging, but there was still a long way to go.
"There is more work to be done educating the public about the dangers of drink. We haven't got labelling of drinks right and there is work to be done in terms of drinks promotions and the use of social media to target young people.
"There are also issues over price and availability. We need to get rid of really cheap discounts on alcohol."
While hospital admissions for alcohol-related diseases were still high, Prof Maryon-Davis said, there was no room for complacency.
"Of those that do drink, the harms are increasing - and they take time to show themselves."
Commenting on the survey's findings, Dr Penny Woods, chief executive of the British Lung Foundation, said the significant decline in the numbers of people smoking in Britain over the last 40 years was "a testament to the effectiveness of combined legislation and awareness raising in tackling what is Britain's leading cause of preventable illness and premature death".
But she added: "The uptake of smoking by young people and childhood exposure to second hand smoke both, however, remain areas of concern."
"It is encouraging to see measures such as banning smoking in cars when children are present and introduction of standardised packaging for cigarettes being seriously considered by this government."