Moments that made this by-election historic
The Conservatives and the prime minister have been dealt a major blow after the Liberal Democrats and Labour won two by-elections.
In Tiverton and Honiton in Devon, the Lib Dems achieved a seismic victory and overturned a 24,000 Tory majority with a 30% swing. Labour took back Wakefield in West Yorkshire after losing the seat to the Tories in 2019.
The Conservative Party co-chairman, Oliver Dowden, resigned. He said someone had to take responsibility for the defeats and that he shared the feelings of Tory supporters who were "distressed and disappointed by recent events."
Boris Johnson, who is in Rwanda for a Commonwealth summit, pledged to "keep going" and listen to voters' concerns.
Produced by Mattea Bubalo