The London Assembly will investigate how the polling for general and council elections was conducted in May.
The review comes after hundreds of Londoners were unable to vote and left queuing as polling booths closed.
About 300 people were turned away in Lewisham and another 150 were unable to vote in Hackney. Long queues were also seen in Vauxhall and Brockley.
The review will look at the issues of overcrowding and as well as allegations of electoral fraud.
The Metropolitan Police are investigating 28 allegations of postal vote fraud and electoral irregularities in 12 boroughs - Tower Hamlets, Lambeth, Barking and Dagenham, Westminster, Enfield, Hounslow, Haringey, Ealing, Brent, Bexleyheath, Camden, Redbridge.
Tower Hamlets Council said it had alerted the police about 10 allegations relating to postal fraud and removed 141 people from the electoral register.
The inquiry will identify the problems and action needed to tackle the issues before the Greater London Authority elections in 2012.
A motion for the review, proposed by London Assembly Member Roger Evans, received unanimous support.
The motion said: "This assembly expresses grave concerns about the organisation of the 2010 General and Local Elections in London.
"We are particularly concerned about the late overcrowding that prevented some people from voting and the allegations of electoral fraud, which is currently being investigated by the police."
The review will be conducted by the Business Management and Administration Committee.