William Byrd

English composer. Born 1540. Died 4 July 1623
William Byrd
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1540
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William Byrd

William Byrd Biography (BBC)

William Byrd was born in London in 1540. Two of his brothers became choristers at St Paul’s Cathedral and, around 1550, he himself may have joined the boys of the Chapel Royal. His early musical training was overseen by adult members of the chapel, among them Thomas Tallis, who taught him keyboard playing. By March 1563 he was appointed organist of Lincoln Cathedral, a post secured on favourable financial terms and supported by the grant of a rectory.

In 1568 Byrd married Juliana Birley at Lincoln. Two of their children were baptised in the fenland city in 1569 and 1572, the year he was sworn in as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal to replace Robert Parsons, who had recently drowned in the River Trent. Although Byrd left Lincoln, high-placed supporters persuaded the cathedral chapter to continue paying him a quarter of his salary in return for ‘church songs and services’. Soon after moving to London, the Byrd family was extended by two more children.

Although Byrd by now enjoyed the support and friendship of several courtiers, the Catholic Lord Paget and Edward Somerset among them, his domestic circumstances and inflationary economic conditions forced him to lobby the queen, in partnership with his old teacher Tallis, for an exclusive licence to publish and import music. Byrd’s joint venture was not a success, although later publishing enterprises proved profitable and also underlined the composer’s high status.

In the 1580s Byrd worked tirelessly to produce a succession of Latin motets, keyboard pieces and songs, later anthologised and issued in several lavish publications between 1588 and 1591. His output also included music for viol consort, for which there was a growing market, works for the Anglican liturgy, and many contrapuntal pieces and dances for keyboard.

Byrd’s adherence to the Catholic faith brought him into potential conflict with the Elizabethan state. His house and servants were watched; he and his wife were cited for recusancy, or failure to attend church regularly. In 1585 the family home at Harlington was searched and soon after Juliana Byrd was outlawed. Despite the difficulties caused by his religious convictions, Byrd continued to enjoy the protection of Elizabeth I. In 1593–4 he moved to the Essex village of Stondon Massey, close to the homes of the Catholic Petre family. Again, records show that the Byrds were routinely fined for recusancy. The composer was not deterred, however, completing many Latin works for private Catholic devotions, three Mass settings and a series of fine motets among them, and boldly publishing these in his two Gradualia collections of 1605 and 1607.

Byrd probably sang at the funeral of Elizabeth I and the coronation of James I in 1603; certainly, he remained a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal under the new king and took part in royal entertainments. In 1608 Byrd’s wife died and was buried at Stondon. His later years were actively spent overseeing the copying of manuscripts by other composers, preserving his own works in such published collections as Psalmes, Songs and Sonnets and Parthenia, and preparing second and third editions of his earlier publications. In 1614 he contributed four songs to William Leighton’s The Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrowfull Soule, his last works to appear in print in his lifetime. Byrd died at Stondon on 4 July 1623 and was buried next to his wife in the village church.

Profile by Andrew Stewart © BBC




Featured Works


William Byrd Tracks

William Byrd
Great Service: Hodie, Psalm 47, Magnificat
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Great Service: Hodie, Psalm 47, Magnificat

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William Byrd
Christus resurgens
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Christus resurgens
William Byrd
Monsieur's Almain
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Monsieur's Almain

Monsieur's Almain

Music Arranger
Ensemble
The Morley Consort
William Byrd
Lamentations
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Lamentations
William Byrd
Vigilate
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Vigilate
William Byrd
The March Before the Battle
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The March Before the Battle
William Byrd
Haec Dies
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Haec Dies
William Byrd
The Great Service: Venite
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The Great Service: Venite

The Great Service: Venite

Ensemble
Odyssean Ensemble
Conductor
Last played on
William Byrd
Sing Joyfully
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Sing Joyfully

Sing Joyfully

Choir
Northern Spirit Singers
William Byrd
Fantasia in A minor
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Fantasia in A minor

Fantasia in A minor

Performer
John Callenger
Conductor
William Byrd
Domine, praestolamur for 5 voices
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Domine, praestolamur for 5 voices
William Byrd
The Great Service: Nunc dimittis
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The Great Service: Nunc dimittis

The Great Service: Nunc dimittis

Ensemble
Odyssean Ensemble
Director
Last played on
William Byrd
A Voluntarie for my Ladye Nevell
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A Voluntarie for my Ladye Nevell
William Byrd
My Ladye Nevells Booke: No 26, A Voluntarie, for my Ladye Nevell
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My Ladye Nevells Booke: No 26, A Voluntarie, for my Ladye Nevell
William Byrd
Ye sacred muses
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Ye sacred muses
William Byrd
Bow thine Ear, O Lord
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Bow thine Ear, O Lord
William Byrd
Peccantem me quotidie
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Peccantem me quotidie
William Byrd
Hughe Ashton's Ground
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Hughe Ashton's Ground
William Byrd
Though Amaryllis dance in green
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Though Amaryllis dance in green
William Byrd
Browning, 'The leaves be green' à 5
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Browning, 'The leaves be green' à 5
William Byrd
Have mercy upon me O God
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Have mercy upon me O God
William Byrd
Fantasia for keyboard (MB.28.46) in D minor [no.41 from "My Lady Nevell's book"]
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Fantasia for keyboard (MB.28.46) in D minor [no.41 from "My Lady Nevell's book"]
William Byrd
Agnus Dei, from 'Mass for five voices'
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Agnus Dei, from 'Mass for five voices'
William Byrd
Fantasia no. 1 in F major for consort a 6
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Fantasia no. 1 in F major for consort a 6
William Byrd
Firste Pavian and Galliarde
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Firste Pavian and Galliarde
William Byrd
The Battle arr. for brass ensemble (No 15, The Earl of Oxford's March)
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The Battle arr. for brass ensemble (No 15, The Earl of Oxford's March)
William Byrd
Ave verum corpus (Gradualia, Vol 1)
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Ave verum corpus (Gradualia, Vol 1)
William Byrd
Pavana Bray
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Pavana Bray
William Byrd
Lavolta (2) MB.28.91 for keyboard
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Lavolta (2) MB.28.91 for keyboard
William Byrd
Peccavi super numerum
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Peccavi super numerum
William Byrd
Domine, secundum actum meum
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Domine, secundum actum meum
William Byrd
O lux, beata Trinitas
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O lux, beata Trinitas
William Byrd
Salve regina
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Salve regina
William Byrd
Venite, exultemus Domino for 6 voices
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Venite, exultemus Domino for 6 voices
William Byrd
Mass for 5 voices (Gloria)
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Mass for 5 voices (Gloria)
William Byrd
Cristo Redentor
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Cristo Redentor

Cristo Redentor

Music Arranger
B. J. Cole
Ensemble
William Byrd
Rorate coeli for 5 voices
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Rorate coeli for 5 voices
William Byrd
Come to me grief forever
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Come to me grief forever
William Byrd
La Volta in G
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La Volta in G
William Byrd
O Lux beata Trinitas
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O Lux beata Trinitas
William Byrd
La Volta
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La Volta
William Byrd
Kyrie (Mass for 5 voices)
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Kyrie (Mass for 5 voices)

Kyrie (Mass for 5 voices)

Ensemble
Cardinall's Musick
William Byrd
Miserere Nostri
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Miserere Nostri
William Byrd
Pavan and Gigue
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Pavan and Gigue
William Byrd
Goodnight Ground for keyboard (MB.27.42) in C major
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Goodnight Ground for keyboard (MB.27.42) in C major
William Byrd
Quomodo cantabimus
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Quomodo cantabimus
William Byrd
The Bells
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The Bells
The Cardinall’s Musick
Gradualia Book 2 (1607) - Communion. Vidimus stellam ejus in Oriente
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Gradualia Book 2 (1607) - Communion. Vidimus stellam ejus in Oriente
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