William Byrd
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1540
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William Byrd

William Byrd Biography (BBC)

William Byrd was born in London in 1540. Two of his brothers became choristers at St Paul’s Cathedral and, around 1550, he himself may have joined the boys of the Chapel Royal. His early musical training was overseen by adult members of the chapel, among them Thomas Tallis, who taught him keyboard playing. By March 1563 he was appointed organist of Lincoln Cathedral, a post secured on favourable financial terms and supported by the grant of a rectory.

In 1568 Byrd married Juliana Birley at Lincoln. Two of their children were baptised in the fenland city in 1569 and 1572, the year he was sworn in as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal to replace Robert Parsons, who had recently drowned in the River Trent. Although Byrd left Lincoln, high-placed supporters persuaded the cathedral chapter to continue paying him a quarter of his salary in return for ‘church songs and services’. Soon after moving to London, the Byrd family was extended by two more children.

Although Byrd by now enjoyed the support and friendship of several courtiers, the Catholic Lord Paget and Edward Somerset among them, his domestic circumstances and inflationary economic conditions forced him to lobby the queen, in partnership with his old teacher Tallis, for an exclusive licence to publish and import music. Byrd’s joint venture was not a success, although later publishing enterprises proved profitable and also underlined the composer’s high status.

In the 1580s Byrd worked tirelessly to produce a succession of Latin motets, keyboard pieces and songs, later anthologised and issued in several lavish publications between 1588 and 1591. His output also included music for viol consort, for which there was a growing market, works for the Anglican liturgy, and many contrapuntal pieces and dances for keyboard.

Byrd’s adherence to the Catholic faith brought him into potential conflict with the Elizabethan state. His house and servants were watched; he and his wife were cited for recusancy, or failure to attend church regularly. In 1585 the family home at Harlington was searched and soon after Juliana Byrd was outlawed. Despite the difficulties caused by his religious convictions, Byrd continued to enjoy the protection of Elizabeth I. In 1593–4 he moved to the Essex village of Stondon Massey, close to the homes of the Catholic Petre family. Again, records show that the Byrds were routinely fined for recusancy. The composer was not deterred, however, completing many Latin works for private Catholic devotions, three Mass settings and a series of fine motets among them, and boldly publishing these in his two Gradualia collections of 1605 and 1607.

Byrd probably sang at the funeral of Elizabeth I and the coronation of James I in 1603; certainly, he remained a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal under the new king and took part in royal entertainments. In 1608 Byrd’s wife died and was buried at Stondon. His later years were actively spent overseeing the copying of manuscripts by other composers, preserving his own works in such published collections as Psalmes, Songs and Sonnets and Parthenia, and preparing second and third editions of his earlier publications. In 1614 he contributed four songs to William Leighton’s The Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrowfull Soule, his last works to appear in print in his lifetime. Byrd died at Stondon on 4 July 1623 and was buried next to his wife in the village church.

Profile by Andrew Stewart © BBC




Featured Works


William Byrd Tracks

William Byrd
The Woods So Wild
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The Woods So Wild

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William Byrd
Sing joyfully unto God
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Sing joyfully unto God
William Byrd
Rorate Coeli
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Rorate Coeli
William Byrd
Browning, 'The leaves be green' à 5
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Browning, 'The leaves be green' à 5
William Byrd
Laudibus in sanctis
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Laudibus in sanctis
William Byrd
The Earle of Oxford's March (MB.28 No.93) [orig. for keyboard]
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The Earle of Oxford's March (MB.28 No.93) [orig. for keyboard]
William Byrd
Fantasia in A minor
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Fantasia in A minor

Fantasia in A minor

Performer
William Fox
Last played on
William Byrd
Unto the hills mine eyes I lift
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Unto the hills mine eyes I lift
William Byrd
In resurrectione tua
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In resurrectione tua
William Byrd
Sing Joyfully Unto God
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Sing Joyfully Unto God
William Byrd
John Come Kiss Me Now
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John Come Kiss Me Now
William Byrd
Ne Irascaris Domine (from 'Cantiones Sacrae I')
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Ne Irascaris Domine (from 'Cantiones Sacrae I')
William Byrd
Bow thine Ear, O Lord
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Bow thine Ear, O Lord
William Byrd
Magnificat (The Great Service)
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Magnificat (The Great Service)

Magnificat (The Great Service)

Ensemble
Cardinall's Musick
William Byrd
Gipseis Round
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Gipseis Round
William Byrd
Mass for 5 voices (Credo)
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Mass for 5 voices (Credo)
William Byrd
Mass for 5 voices: Agnus Dei
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Mass for 5 voices: Agnus Dei
William Byrd
The Queen's Alman - Hugh Ashton's Ground (MB 20)
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The Queen's Alman - Hugh Ashton's Ground (MB 20)
William Byrd
Mass for five voices with Propers from the Feast of All Saints: Gloria, Timete Dominum, Credo
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Mass for five voices with Propers from the Feast of All Saints: Gloria, Timete Dominum, Credo
William Byrd
Laudibus in sanctis (Cantiones Sacrae Vol 2)
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Laudibus in sanctis (Cantiones Sacrae Vol 2)
William Byrd
Sellingers Rownde
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Sellingers Rownde
William Byrd
The Battell: The Trumpetts
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The Battell: The Trumpetts
William Byrd
Monsieur's Alman arr for consort
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Monsieur's Alman arr for consort

Monsieur's Alman arr for consort

Performer
Ensemble
The Julian Bream Consort
Last played on
William Byrd
Laudibus in sanctis
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Laudibus in sanctis
William Byrd
Goodnight Ground for keyboard (MB.27.42) in C major
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Goodnight Ground for keyboard (MB.27.42) in C major
William Byrd
Mass for 4 voices (Credo)
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Mass for 4 voices (Credo)
William Byrd
Christe Redemptor a 4
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Christe Redemptor a 4
William Byrd
Sing joyfully unto God our strength
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Sing joyfully unto God our strength
William Byrd
Ne Irascaris Domine
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Ne Irascaris Domine
William Byrd
A voluntarie, for my Ladye Nevell
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A voluntarie, for my Ladye Nevell
William Byrd
Mass for 4 voices (Kyrie)
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Mass for 4 voices (Kyrie)
William Byrd
The Bells for keyboard (MB.27.38)
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The Bells for keyboard (MB.27.38)
William Byrd
Ave verum corpus
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Ave verum corpus
William Byrd
Lullaby, my sweet little baby
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Lullaby, my sweet little baby

Lullaby, my sweet little baby

Choir
Conductor
Sarah Latto
Last played on
William Byrd
Vigilate for 5 voices
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Vigilate for 5 voices
William Byrd
Fantasia no. 1 in F major for consort a 6
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Fantasia no. 1 in F major for consort a 6
William Byrd
Cantiones Sacrae I: Ne Irascaris Domine
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Cantiones Sacrae I: Ne Irascaris Domine
William Byrd
Wolsey's Wilde (Suite 'William Byrd')
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Wolsey's Wilde (Suite 'William Byrd')
William Byrd
Ave verum corpus
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Ave verum corpus
William Byrd
Alleluia, Senez puerum portabat
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Alleluia, Senez puerum portabat
William Byrd
Sing Joyfully
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Sing Joyfully
William Byrd
Sing joyfully
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Sing joyfully
William Byrd
Vigilate
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Vigilate
Mike Marshall
The Big Cheese (incorporating a fantasia by William Byrd)
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The Big Cheese (incorporating a fantasia by William Byrd)
William Byrd
Pavana Bray
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Pavana Bray
William Byrd
The Great Service (Venite)
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The Great Service (Venite)
William Byrd
Firste Pavian and Galliarde
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Firste Pavian and Galliarde
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