Claude DebussyBorn 22 August 1862. Died 25 March 1918
Claude Debussy Biography (BBC)
Charting Debussy’s education tells us little about his roots. His rebellion against his teacher’s admonishment of his delight in a series of ‘forbidden’ harmonies resulted in his conclusion that ‘mon plaisir’ was the only rule: individuality and hedonism were all that mattered. His real teachers were close friends, lovers (sometimes), literature of many sorts and, perhaps, painting.
In his youth he was introduced to contemporary French poetry – particularly that of Banville, Verlaine and Mallarmé – through a relationship with an older woman. From song-writing he moved on to cantatas such as La damoiselle élue, a setting of a poem by the English Pre-Raphaelite poet-painter Rossetti. Debussy’s one outstanding operatic venture, Pelléas et Mélisande, occupied him for much of the 1890s, but in this decade he also deepened his ability to parallel the work of contemporary poets, both in songs and in the purely orchestral Prélude à L’après-midi d’un faune.
Another side of his output has often been compared to Impressionist painting. But the painter whose work is closer to Debussy’s ideas was James McNeill Whistler, whose series of works entitled Nocturnes may be connected to the composer’s orchestral triptych of 1897–9.
Never complacent and always seeking new challenges in every aspect of composition, in the new century he would turn to the evocation of entirely different places. Most celebrated is his only piece that resembles a symphony: La mer. It captures not only the sounds and rhythms of the sea, but also the changing weather and time of day. Further exploits – including the orchestral Images – would take Debussy to Spain.
Alongside these masterpieces of orchestral evocation, Debussy also developed a highly personal piano style. Perhaps the first piece to show a marked difference from his earlier piano music was the first piece from the two books of Images for piano, ‘Reflets dans l’eau’. Its rippling arpeggios, bathed in pedal, pioneered a new Impressionist piano style.
In the two books of Préludes for piano Debussy showed the infinite variety of his imagination. Enigmatically printed with the titles at the end rather than at the beginning, almost all the pieces have some kind of extramusical association: perhaps with a place, or a literary idea. The sequel to the Préludes was a set of pieces with no associations other than to themselves: a set of 12 piano Études.
Among the composer’s last works, the ballet Jeux is regarded as a highlight, and of the six planned late sonatas only three were written. Of the three unwritten sonatas, that for the extraordinary combination of oboe, horn and harpsichord must rank among the most lamented of planned works never to have reached fruition.
Profile © Richard Langham Smith
Claude Debussy Biography (Wikipedia)
Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, although he vigorously rejected the term. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Born to a family of modest means and little cultural involvement, Debussy showed enough musical talent to be admitted at the age of ten to France's leading music college, the Conservatoire de Paris. He originally studied the piano, but found his vocation in innovative composition, despite the disapproval of the Conservatoire's conservative professors. He took many years to develop his mature style, and was nearly 40 when he achieved international fame in 1902 with the only opera he completed, Pelléas et Mélisande.
Debussy's orchestral works include Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894), Nocturnes (1897–1899) and Images (1905–1912). His music was to a considerable extent a reaction against Wagner and the German musical tradition. He regarded the classical symphony as obsolete and sought an alternative in his "symphonic sketches", La mer (1903–1905). His piano works include two books of Préludes and two of Études. Throughout his career he wrote mélodies based on a wide variety of poetry, including his own. He was greatly influenced by the Symbolist poetic movement of the later 19th century. A small number of works, including the early La Damoiselle élue and the late Le Martyre de saint Sébastien have important parts for chorus. In his final years, he focused on chamber music, completing three of six planned sonatas for different combinations of instruments.
- Debussy: Violin Sonatahttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p06c1f2s.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p06c1f2s.jpg2018-06-25T09:31:00.000ZBuilding a Library surveys recordings of Debussy's Violin Sonata.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p06c1dqg
Debussy: Violin Sonata
- Debussy: Piano Preludes (Book 1)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p062662g.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p062662g.jpg2018-03-24T13:27:00.000ZBuilding a Library surveys recordings of Book 1 of Debussy's Piano Preludes.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p06265jv
Debussy: Piano Preludes (Book 1)
- Debussyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p060x9b2.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p060x9b2.jpg2018-03-23T13:06:00.000ZDonald Macleod looks at the development of Debussy's career against his personal lifehttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p06233zj
- Steven Osborne's utterly enchanting Debussyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05yxzmc.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05yxzmc.jpg2018-02-21T18:42:00.000ZCan you hear those bells? Pianist Steven Osborne gives a breathtaking performance of Debussy's 'Cloches a travers les feuilles', live on In Tune.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p05yxz64
Steven Osborne's utterly enchanting Debussy
- Danny Driver plays the Debussy piece inspired by the image of a goldfish and its reflection...https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p0535wqq.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p0535wqq.jpg2017-05-17T11:46:00.000ZPianist Danny Driver plays the piece inspired by the image of a goldfish and its reflection: Poisson d'or, from Debussy's Images Book 2https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p0535fxp
Danny Driver plays the Debussy piece inspired by the image of a goldfish and its reflection...
- Blissful tranquillity: Emily Sun plays Debussyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04xrcfz.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04xrcfz.jpg2017-03-23T10:25:00.000ZBBC Classical Introducing artist Emily Sun performs Clair de Lune with pianist Jennifer Hughes, live on In Tune.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p04xrbcm
Blissful tranquillity: Emily Sun plays Debussy
- An Interlude from Debussyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04ptjlk.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04ptjlk.jpg2017-01-17T17:38:00.000ZTrio Anima perform the Interlude from Debussy's exquisite 1915 Sonata for harp triohttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p04ptjm7
An Interlude from Debussy
- Debussy: La mer (extract)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03ntq4p.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03ntq4p.jpg2016-04-17T11:00:00.000ZPreview of music performed at the BBC Promshttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03nnkx7
Debussy: La mer (extract)
- Debussyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03jn6sm.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03jn6sm.jpg2016-02-26T13:00:00.000ZDonald Macleod discusses the fruits of a number of Debussy's important friendshipshttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03knync
- Debussy: Feux d'artifice (extract)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02mp12g.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02mp12g.jpg2015-04-23T09:00:00.000ZAn extract from Debussy's Feux d'artifice.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p02mp13f
Debussy: Feux d'artifice (extract)
- Melodyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01zv2c9.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01zv2c9.jpg2014-05-27T09:26:00.000ZLeonard Slatkin explores a basic element of music: melody.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p01zv2cp
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