Arnold Schoenberg
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1874-09-13
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Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Schoenberg Biography (BBC)

Schoenberg was born in 1874 in Vienna to orthodox Jewish parents of modest means. At the age of 17 he started working in a bank, while pursuing his passion for music by playing chamber music with friends, taking lessons with the slightly older Alexander Zemlinsky and composing. By his 20s he was producing works he felt merited performance and publication, including Verklärte Nacht for string sextet (1899). He also got married, to Zemlinsky’s sister Mathilde.

His progress as a professional composer in Vienna was made difficult by the modernity of his outlook. Deeply attached to the classics, from Bach through Mozart and Beethoven to Brahms, he believed respect for the past meant progress. In 1901 he moved to Berlin, and there met Richard Strauss and began his work as a teacher, but two years later he returned to Vienna, where he drew close to Mahler and gained Anton Webern and Alban Berg among his pupils. The development of his music now was rapid: there is a sense in the fast, dense First Chamber Symphony (1906) of a hurtling towards atonality – a goal he reached in his Second Quartet (1907–8). Gurrelieder, a work for soloists, chorus and huge orchestra begun in 1901, was completed in the new style in 1911.

From that year he was back in Berlin – where he wrote Pierrot lunaire for reciter and quintet (1912) – until he was called up for service in the Austrian army (1915–16). He then settled just outside Vienna, continuing to teach but not to compose, for the revolution he had brought about – the opening of music to dissonance, floating rhythm, formal fluidity and extremes of expression and irony – had left him creatively exhausted and confused. Only in the 1920s did he start composing freely once more, using his new 12-tone technique and returning to standard forms (Piano Suite, 1921–3).

In 1924, following his first wife’s death, he remarried, and the next year he moved to Berlin again, to teach at the Prussian Academy. In Berlin he produced some of his most masterly works (Third Quartet, 1927; Orchestral Variations, 1926–8) and started his opera Moses und Aron. But soon after the Nazis took power in 1933, he left, reaffirmed his Jewish faith and found refuge in Los Angeles.

His American works – which include his Fourth Quartet (1936) and concertos for violin (1935–6) and piano (1942) – have a new largeness and richness, often because they come back close to tonality. He had also, during his last year or so in Berlin, returned to tonal composition, which he went on practising. In his last years, hit by illness, he devoted himself to chamber music and choral prayers. He died in 1951.

Profile by Paul Griffiths © BBC

Arnold Schoenberg Biography (Wikipedia)

Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (, US also; (listen); 13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian, and later American, composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. He was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. With the rise of the Nazi Party, Schoenberg's works were labeled degenerate music, because they were modernist and atonal. He emigrated to the United States in 1933.

Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it.

Schoenberg was known early in his career for simultaneously extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner. Later, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality (although Schoenberg himself detested that term) that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. He also coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.

This entry is from Wikipedia, the user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors and is licensed under an Attribution-ShareAlike Creative Commons License. If you find the biography content factually incorrect or highly offensive you can edit this article at Wikipedia. Find out more about our use of this data.

Arnold Schoenberg Performances & Interviews


Arnold Schoenberg Tracks

Arnold Schoenberg
6 Songs, Op. 8: I. Natur
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6 Songs, Op. 8: I. Natur

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Arnold Schoenberg
Gurrelieder, Part One: Orchestral Prelude
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Gurrelieder, Part One: Orchestral Prelude
Arnold Schoenberg
Pierrot lunaire Op.21: Nacht
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Pierrot lunaire Op.21: Nacht

Pierrot lunaire Op.21: Nacht

Ensemble
Manchester Collective
Luigi Denza
Funiculi, funicula
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Funiculi, funicula

Funiculi, funicula

Composer
Music Arranger
Ensemble
Lyon Opera Soloists
Max Reger
Scherzo (Romantic Suite arr for ensemble)
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Scherzo (Romantic Suite arr for ensemble)
Arnold Schoenberg
Presto in C major for string quartet
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Presto in C major for string quartet
Arnold Schoenberg
Piano Quintet "The Iron Brigade"
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Piano Quintet "The Iron Brigade"
Arnold Schoenberg
Verklarte Nacht- Breiter
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Verklarte Nacht- Breiter
Arnold Schoenberg
Folksongs for chorus, Op 49
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Folksongs for chorus, Op 49

Folksongs for chorus, Op 49

Choir
Carmina Chamber Choir
Conductor
Arnold Schoenberg
Verklarte Nacht Op 4
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Verklarte Nacht Op 4
Johann Sebastian Bach
Fugue in E flat major 'St Anne', BWV 552
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Fugue in E flat major 'St Anne', BWV 552
Arnold Schoenberg
Pierrot lunaire Op.21 for voice and ensemble
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Pierrot lunaire Op.21 for voice and ensemble
Arnold Schoenberg
Waldsonne (Op.2 No.4)
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Waldsonne (Op.2 No.4)
Arnold Schoenberg
Piano Quartet No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 25 (Orch. A. Schoenberg): IV. Rondo alla zin
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Piano Quartet No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 25 (Orch. A. Schoenberg): IV. Rondo alla zin
Johann Strauss II
Kaiser-Walzer [Emperor Waltz] Op 437 (1888) arr. Schoenberg
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Kaiser-Walzer [Emperor Waltz] Op 437 (1888) arr. Schoenberg
Johann Sebastian Bach
Chorale Prelude (BWV.654) orch. Schoenberg
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Chorale Prelude (BWV.654) orch. Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
Notturno
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Notturno
Gustav Mahler
Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen
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Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen

Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen

Performer
Marcin Kaminski
Adrian Janda
Bartosz Jakubczak
Bartlomiej Zajkowski
Tomasz Januchta
Hubert Zemler
Music Arranger
Ensemble
Kwartesencja Ensemble
Director
Monika Wolinska
Arnold Schoenberg
Verklarte Nacht Op.4
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Verklarte Nacht Op.4
Arnold Schoenberg
Theme and Variations Op 43b
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Theme and Variations Op 43b
Johann Strauss II
Emperor Waltz Op.437
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Emperor Waltz Op.437
Arnold Schoenberg
4 Songs, Op 2
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4 Songs, Op 2
Arnold Schoenberg
A Survivor from Warsaw
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A Survivor from Warsaw
Johannes Brahms
Piano Quartet No. 1 in G Minor - 4th mvt: Rondo alla Zingarese
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Piano Quartet No. 1 in G Minor - 4th mvt: Rondo alla Zingarese
Arnold Schoenberg
Pelleas und Melisande Op.5
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Pelleas und Melisande Op.5
Arnold Schoenberg
Klavierstuck Op.11 No.3
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Klavierstuck Op.11 No.3
Arnold Schoenberg
Presto in C major
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Presto in C major
Johann Strauss II
Roses from the South, Op 388
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Roses from the South, Op 388
Arnold Schoenberg
Praludium (Suite for PIano, Op 25)
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Praludium (Suite for PIano, Op 25)
Arnold Schoenberg
Verklärte Nacht, Op 4
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Verklärte Nacht, Op 4
Johannes Brahms
Piano Quartet No 1, Op. 25, orch Schoenberg (4th mvt)
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Piano Quartet No 1, Op. 25, orch Schoenberg (4th mvt)
Arnold Schoenberg
A Survivor from Warsaw Op.46
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A Survivor from Warsaw Op.46
Arnold Schoenberg
Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured Night), Op 4
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Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured Night), Op 4
Johannes Brahms
Piano quartet in G minor Op.25 - 4th movement, Rondo alla Zingarese
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Piano quartet in G minor Op.25 - 4th movement, Rondo alla Zingarese
Arnold Schoenberg
Friede auf Erden for chorus, Op.13
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Friede auf Erden for chorus, Op.13

Friede auf Erden for chorus, Op.13

Ensemble
Erik Westbergs Vocal Ensemble
Arnold Schoenberg
Fanfare for a Hollywood Bowl Concert
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Fanfare for a Hollywood Bowl Concert

Fanfare for a Hollywood Bowl Concert

Orchestra
WDR Radio Orchestra, Cologne
Conductor
Johann Strauss II
Emperor Waltz op.437
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Emperor Waltz op.437
Johannes Brahms
Piano Quartet in G minor (Op.25) orch. Schoenberg
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Piano Quartet in G minor (Op.25) orch. Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
4 Songs Op.2
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4 Songs Op.2
Arnold Schoenberg
Pelleas und Melisande (Op.5) (1902-03)
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Pelleas und Melisande (Op.5) (1902-03)
Arnold Schoenberg
Weihnachtsmusik (Christmas Music)
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Weihnachtsmusik (Christmas Music)
Johann Strauss II
Rosen aus dem Suden: waltz arr. Schoenberg for harmonium, piano & string quartet
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Rosen aus dem Suden: waltz arr. Schoenberg for harmonium, piano & string quartet
Arnold Schoenberg
Weihnachtsmusik for 2 violins, cello, harmonium and piano
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Weihnachtsmusik for 2 violins, cello, harmonium and piano
Arnold Schoenberg
Violin Concerto, Op. 36: II. Andante grazioso
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Violin Concerto, Op. 36: II. Andante grazioso
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