The State Academic Symphony Orchestra "Evgeny Svetlanov" (Государственный Академический Симфонический Оркестр России имени Е. Ф. Светланова) is a Russian orchestra based in Moscow. Sometimes known in English as the Russian State Symphony Orchestra, the orchestra gives concerts in Moscow at the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory and at the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall.
The orchestra was founded in 1936 as the USSR State Symphony Orchestra, with Alexander Gauk as its first music director. The orchestra changed its name after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The orchestra's longest serving music director was Evgeny Svetlanov, from 1965 to 2000. Svetlanov's tenure ended with his controversial dismissal by Russia's minister of culture, Mikhail Shvydkoi, who had accused Svetlanov of spending excessive time conducting outside of Russia. In 2005, the orchestra officially acquired the additional name of Svetlanov Symphony Orchestra. The orchestra now has the formal name, in English of the State Academic Symphony Orchestra "Evgeny Svetlanov".