Francis PoulencPianist and composer. Born 7 January 1899. Died 30 January 1963
Francis Poulenc Biography (BBC)
It was the French critic Claude Rostand who made the classic distinction between Poulenc the monk (‘le moine’) and Poulenc the bad boy (‘le voyou’). Had he been writing when the composer was in his early thirties rather than his early fifties, Rostand would not have been able to make such a distinction: there was only the bad boy. What changed things – following the trauma of the death of a colleague in a particularly horrific road accident in 1936 – was a revelatory first visit to the chapel of the Black Virgin at Rocamadour. Immediately on leaving there Poulenc made a start on his Litanies à la Vierge noire, the first in a series of 12 religious choral works written over the remaining 27 years of his life.
During his childhood he had been influenced less by his God-fearing father – one of the founders of the chemical manufacturing company that became Rhône-Poulenc – than by his mother, who was not very religious but was very musical. He absorbed cabaret and dance music as thoroughly as classical music from Monteverdi to Stravinsky via Mozart. His refusal to discriminate between the two types is one of the most distinctive, most appealing and most durable features of his own compositions, many of which are all the better for their quota of ‘bad-boy’ music.
Not having had a conservatoire training, though he studied piano with Ricardo Viñes and harmony with Charles Koechlin, he needed a model. That is where Stravinsky came in. Stravinsky was the dominant influence on his music not only in the 1920s – when Poulenc found early notoriety as one of the so-called ‘Groupe des Six’ under the anti-Impressionist aesthetic leadership of Jean Cocteau – but through much of his career. In fact, it would take him as long to integrate the Stravinsky idiom into his own harmonic language as to reconcile the monk and the bad-boy elements in his make-up.
Poulenc was an entertaining and affectionate companion who loved music above everything else. Recent biographies have made much of his homosexuality but it was no more important to his development than any other composer’s sexuality to his or hers. Besides, apart from the fact that he was by no means exclusively homosexual, the two most fruitful relationships in his adult life were strictly platonic. But for his long-term recital partnership with the baritone Pierre Bernac he would not have provided a catalogue of songs as distinguished as any in the 20th century. And without his loving admiration for the soprano Denise Duval, for whom he conceived the roles of Blanche in Dialogues des Carmélites and the solitary protagonist in La voix humaine, his last two operas might not have been written at all.
Profile © Gerald Larner
Francis Poulenc Biography (Wikipedia)
Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 1899 – 30 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist. His compositions include songs, solo piano works, chamber music, choral pieces, operas, ballets, and orchestral concert music. Among the best-known are the piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet Les biches (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the Organ Concerto (1938), the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra.
As the only son of a prosperous manufacturer, Poulenc was expected to follow his father into the family firm, and he was not allowed to enrol at a music college. Largely self-educated musically, he studied with the pianist Ricardo Viñes, who became his mentor after the composer's parents died. Poulenc also made the acquaintance of Erik Satie, under whose tutelage he became one of a group of young composers known collectively as Les Six. In his early works Poulenc became known for his high spirits and irreverence. During the 1930s a much more serious side to his nature emerged, particularly in the religious music he composed from 1936 onwards, which he alternated with his more light-hearted works.
- Poulenc's important musical friendshipshttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02x45tw.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02x45tw.jpg2015-07-24T12:00:00.000ZDonald Macleod charts some of Francis Poulenc's important musical friendshipshttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p02xy06n
Poulenc's important musical friendships
- Francis Poulenc (1899-1963)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p020mldq.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p020mldq.jpg2014-06-09T11:02:00.000ZDonald Macleod explores Francis Poulenc's unique musical voice - and sometimes troublesome character - showcasing a blend of much-loved favourites and rare works.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p020mlgv
Francis Poulenc (1899-1963)
- Francis Poulenchttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p020mk37.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p020mk37.jpg2014-06-09T10:52:00.000ZDonald Macleod explores the life and work of Francis Poulenc.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p020mk82
Francis Poulenc Tracks