Ludwig van BeethovenBorn 17 December 1770. Died 26 March 1827
Ludwig van Beethoven Biography (BBC)
The popular image of Beethoven as a morose individual who shunned society is only partly true. He did have a serious outlook on life, and in later years he had difficulty mixing with people because of his deafness, which emerged in his late twenties and gradually increased thereafter till his death. Yet he loved company, and had a ready wit. His letters contain many puns, and it was he who introduced the scherzo (literally, ‘joke’) into the symphony when he used one in his Symphony No. 2 instead of the customary minuet.
This Second Symphony already goes well beyond the models of Haydn and Mozart, the two chief influences on his style. Building on their example Beethoven continually strove to stretch the bounds of music to new limits, whether in his seven surviving concertos, 16 string quartets, 35 piano sonatas (including three very early ones) or other works.
Each of his nine symphonies (and an incipient tenth) is completely different from any previous one, and he showed similar originality in every major genre of the time, from his only opera Fidelio and his mighty Missa solemnis to his numerous settings of folk songs, which he treated in an entirely novel way. He achieved his goal through a combination of natural genius and sheer hard work: every one of his major compositions is the result of painstaking refinement, evident in the many thousands of pages of musical sketches that he wrote.
It is not always realised, however, that Beethoven was extraordinary in other ways too. Having no wife or family of his own, he spent enormous energy on helping his nephew, and he was deeply religious. Indeed his goodness and kindness were so evident to his contemporaries that at least three of them independently asserted that he was even greater as a human being than as a musician. Considering that many regard him as the greatest composer in history, such praise is astonishing.
Beethoven also responded strikingly to political upheavals – the French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic wars. Although no political activist, he made his hatred of tyranny very plain in works such as Fidelio and his music for Goethe’s play Egmont.
Yet it is the quality of his music that has ensured his lasting reputation. Although its novelty initially puzzled some of his contemporaries, repeated hearings and study have shown that it is based on firm foundations. Its combination of beauty and unpredictability, extreme emotional depth and intellectual rigour, across so many genres, is unsurpassed and probably always will be.
Profile © Barry Cooper
- Paul Lewis: how can life shape the way we hear music?https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p06cd97n.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p06cd97n.jpg2018-06-29T09:07:00.000ZThe clarinet solo in the slow movement of Beethoven's 4th Symphony takes on new meaning.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p06cd74l
Paul Lewis: how can life shape the way we hear music?
- Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.30 in E, Op.109https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01nkh67.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01nkh67.jpg2018-02-03T11:40:00.000ZHarriet Smith surveys recordings of Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major, Op. 109.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p05wzmbr
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.30 in E, Op.109
- Beethovenhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05t5f61.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05t5f61.jpg2018-01-19T14:36:00.000ZDonald Macleod explores Beethoven the pianist and composer for the pianohttps://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p05vg0fr
- Beethoven: Ode to Joy – Liszt's transcription (excerpt) (2017)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05dtcm6.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p05dtcm6.jpg2017-08-31T17:15:00.000ZAward-winning pianist Igor Levit's encore at First Night of the Proms 2017.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p05dt75n
Beethoven: Ode to Joy – Liszt's transcription (excerpt) (2017)
- Beethoven: 'Prisoners' Chorus' from Fidelio (excerpt) (2017)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p059njlf.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p059njlf.jpg2017-08-29T20:30:00.000ZPerformed by Orfeón Donostiarra with the BBC Philharmonic conducted by Juanjo Mena.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p059n90b
Beethoven: 'Prisoners' Chorus' from Fidelio (excerpt) (2017)
- Beethoven: Symphony No 3 in E flat major 'Eroica' (Funeral March) – excerpt (2017)https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p059kz2q.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p059kz2q.jpg2017-07-24T15:35:00.000ZNo symphony pulses more vigorously with the rhythms of political protest than Beethoven's 'Eroica', performed here entirely from memory.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p059kv2n
Beethoven: Symphony No 3 in E flat major 'Eroica' (Funeral March) – excerpt (2017)
- Beethoven: 'Diabelli' Variationshttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01bqf5y.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01bqf5y.jpg2017-06-17T12:47:00.000ZBuilding a Library recommends a recording of Beethoven's 'Diabelli' Variations.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p0565wng
Beethoven: 'Diabelli' Variations
- How to play Beethoven's late sonatashttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03nk761.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03nk761.jpg2016-11-21T11:30:00.000ZJonathan Biss on his first encounter with Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.32 Op.111.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p04h614g
How to play Beethoven's late sonatas
- Dennis Russell Davies | My Musichttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04cm929.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04cm929.jpg2016-10-20T14:48:00.000ZDennis Russell Davies discusses Beethoven's1st String Quartet by the Alban Berg Quartet.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p04cm92q
Dennis Russell Davies | My Music
- Sean encounters a lock of Beethoven's hair in the In Tune studiohttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04bw5br.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p04bw5br.jpg2016-10-13T09:22:00.000ZSimon Maguire, Director and Senior Specialist in Books & Manuscripts at Sotherby's, brings a lock of Beethoven's hair into the In Tune studio.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p04bw5r8
Sean encounters a lock of Beethoven's hair in the In Tune studio
- Thomas Dausgaard on the Beethoven 1808 Academy Concerthttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p048t8zh.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p048t8zh.jpg2016-09-23T13:17:30.000ZBBC SSO Chief Conductor Thomas Dausgaard on the Beethoven 1808 Academy concert.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p048t3dv
Thomas Dausgaard on the Beethoven 1808 Academy Concert
- Pavel Kolesnikov performs Beethovenhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02ty6jk.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02ty6jk.jpg2016-08-25T16:08:00.000ZPavel Kolesnikov performs Beethoven's Piano Sonata in G, Op 14 No 2https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p045vdb3
Pavel Kolesnikov performs Beethoven
- Proms interval talk: An Introduction to Beethoven's Eighth Symphonyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02kg90v.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02kg90v.jpg2016-08-16T13:27:00.000ZSarah Walker delves into Beethoven's Eighth Symphony with musicologist John Deathridge.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p044w7md
Proms interval talk: An Introduction to Beethoven's Eighth Symphony
- "I've never forgotton where I was the first time I heard this performance"https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03yf97j.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03yf97j.jpg2016-06-15T13:34:00.000ZJames Rhodes on why he loves Glenn Gould's performance of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No.1https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03yf98c
"I've never forgotton where I was the first time I heard this performance"
- A performance of Beethoven's Fifth Symphonyhttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03wtx45.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03wtx45.jpg2016-05-31T13:55:00.000ZJohn Eliot Gardiner and the Orchestre Revolutionnaire et Romantique perform Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03wtytp
A performance of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
- Evidence of revolutionary idealshttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03wts0s.jpghttps://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03wts0s.jpg2016-05-31T13:27:00.000ZIan and John explore the evidence that Beethoven's revolutionary beliefs found their way into the first four notes of the Fifth Symphony.https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03wtth9
Evidence of revolutionary ideals
Ludwig van Beethoven Tracks