Place the quince, caster sugar and lemon juice in a saucepan and add water until the quince quarters are well covered. Bring to the boil and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Remove the quince from the water with a slotted spoon and transfer to kitchen paper to drain and cool.
Roll the pastry out on a lightly floured work surface and cut out a circle that is 28cm/11in in diameter. Leave to chill in the fridge until needed. Preheat the oven to 200C/180C Fan/Gas 6.
Press the butter onto the base of a high-sided 26cm/10½in-diameter heavy-based ovenproof frying pan with the back of a spoon until it completely covers the base. Sprinkle over the granulated sugar evenly. Add the star anise, vanilla seeds, cinnamon stick and bay leaves. Lay the quince quarters on top, cut side-up.
Lay the pastry over the quinces and tuck it down the sides of the pan. Prick a few holes into the pastry to let the steam escape.
Place the pan over a medium heat for 6–8 minutes, turning and shaking the pan occasionally to avoid burning. When the caramel is slightly golden, place the pan in the oven and bake, turning once, for 25 minutes, or until the pastry is golden. Remove from the oven and leave to rest for at least an hour.
When ready to serve, warm slightly on the hob again to release the caramelised fruit and very carefully turn out onto a serving plate. Cut into slices and serve immediately with the vanilla ice cream.