Chapterisation assists users find specific material within broadcast content that is available online, by creating points for them to navigate to.
Definition of terms:
Chapter: a section within a broadcast episode.
Chapter points: the start and end times of a chapter.
Chapter metadata: Information associated with each chapter to allow users and search engines to find and understand its content - such as description, genre, keywords and duration.
Chapterisation: the process of creating chapter points and chapter metadata from a broadcast episode.
Some production areas have chosen to create sequential chapters through the whole of a programme, others use chapters to focus only on certain content within a programme. Currently when the audience play a chapter and the end of it is reached, the player continues to play out the rest of the programme. (However, material earlier in the programme will have been missed unless the person chooses to go back to it).
The broadcast radio and television programmes from which chapters are taken should already meet the Editorial Guidelines and have been editorially complied. If a complete programme has been through the full editorial compliance process, its chapters do not normally need to go through the process again, as chapters are just a means of navigating programmes. However, care must be taken when chapter points are created, to ensure that chapterisation does not create editorial issues. This is particularly important if only a few selected chapters are being created within a programme, rather than a sequential series of chapters throughout the whole programme.
As with other web content, an appropriate senior editorial figure should oversee the process of adding chapters, including the writing of appropriate metadata.
Impartiality lies at the heart of the BBC and applies to all our services and output. Due impartiality can be achieved within a programme, across a series or strand. It is important to think about impartiality when selecting sections to chapterise, as well as across the portfolio of episodes and whole shows that are chosen to have chapters added. Due impartiality should normally be achieved across the sections chosen for chapterisation. When creating "highlight" chapters from a single programme, or adding chapters to a portfolio of episodes, take care not to eliminate or add weight to aspects of the argument. Where due impartiality is achieved over a series, it may be advisable to chapterise all episodes.
It is particularly important to consider due impartiality when your service normally only chapterises highlights, rather than complete programmes. For some output dealing with major matters of public policy or political or industrial controversy or other controversial subjects, it may be advisable to sequentially chapterise whole programmes. There may also be politically sensitive times, such as during an election campaign, where it becomes essential to chapterise complete programmes in relevant genres as well.
However, chapterising can assist programmes and networks in navigating audiences to different aspects of arguments, or updating stories as they unfold. For example, home pages can link to chapters from different programmes.
Personal view pieces within programmes which are mostly not personal view require careful thought. If selected for chapterisation, clear signposts should be given that the relevant chapters represent a personal view.
Chapters should give a fair representation of the programme or series. They should fairly represent people's contributions: it is important to select highlight chapters which appropriately reflect what someone has said.
In Factual and Factual Entertainment programmes, care should be taken in the selection of chapters so that a distorted impression is not given of someone - for example, where the person undergoes a redemptive journey through the narrative of the whole programme.
Harm and Offence
Context and sign-posting are key to handling material which may cause harm and offence. A whole programme may build to the material, giving signals along the way of what is to come. The material may subsequently be resolved and/or the consequences of the behaviour or event shown.
With potentially offensive content, consideration should be given to how to prepare people for the material they will encounter in the chapter. Chapter points should be carefully selected and clear descriptions may need to be written in the metadata, perhaps pointing to a further chapter where the scene is resolved.
Content Labelling/ "G" for Guidance
Where a strong or challenging programme has been given a "G for Guidance" icon, the icon should also be automatically triggered when a chapter is selected. The PIN/password protection system, for parents to restrict access, also applies to chapters.
A few programmes merit an announcement for content when they are transmitted but do not have "G" for Guidance icons on demand (for example, pre-watershed television programmes with scenes of surgery, nudity or bullfighting). Great care should be taken when chapterising these programmes. Sequential chapters are likely to be more appropriate than highlight chapters.
In deciding on chapter points, consideration should be given to whether there is a risk that the audience could be misled if important information is left out of a chapter.
Care should be taken so that the choice of chapters does not give undue prominence to a particular product where, in the whole programme, a selection of different products is shown.