Addition explained, getting the same total when adding different numbers and making addition easier using chunking and the column method.

Explaining subtraction, subtracting numbers in stages and how to make subtraction easier using chunking and the column method.

Explaining multiplication, different ways of thinking about multiplication and long multiplication using the grid method.

Division explained, remainders when dividing numbers and dividing by 10.

Place value explained, multiplying and dividing by 10 and comparing prices using place value.

Ratios explained, working out total amounts using ratios and scaling a recipe using ratios.

Fractions explained, cutting a cake into equal pieces and representing a fraction as a decimal and as a percentage.

Percentages explained, calculating percentage discounts and how to turn fractions into percentages.

Whole numbers and decimal numbers, measuring correctly using decimals and multiplying decimals.