Using conjunctions to join ideas

Learning focus

To use the conjunctions 'and', 'because', 'if' and 'when' to join ideas.

This lesson includes:

  • one video about conjunctions

  • one video about using 'because'

  • three activities


Conjunctions join together two different, but related, parts of a sentence.

They can be words like: and, but, if, when, because

For example: I like swimming and she likes dancing.

Watch the short video below to see some more examples of conjunctions in action!

See if you can spot all the times 'and' is used to join sentences.

'Because' is a really useful conjunction. We can use it to explain how or why something is the case.

For example: I felt sick because I went on the roller coaster twice!

In the Teacher Talk below, Ms Williams explains more about how to use 'because'. Listen carefully and join in with the activities!

Explore how to use 'because' with Ms Williams.

Top tip!

You can use because, if and when at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.

For example:

  • I was late because I missed the bus.

  • Because I missed the bus, I was late.


You may need paper and a pen or pencil for some of these activities.

Activity 1: Let's join our ideas

See if you can identify all the conjunctions (joining words) in this short activity.

Activity 2: Discover the ocean

There are lots of different things you can see in the ocean.

Watch this short video then complete the activity below.

Try and remember as much information about the ocean as possible.

Complete the sentences using the list of conjunctions.
You should use each conjunction once.

You can say your answers out loud or write them down.
The first one has been done for you.

and, because, and, but, and, when

  1. Some fish are big and some fish are small.

  2. Seaweed looks like a plant ........... it's an algae.

  3. Seaweed grows close to the surface ........... it uses the sun to make food.

  4. Plankton is made up of tiny plants ........... animals.

  5. Ocean habitats are large ........... wet.

  6. ........... whales need to breathe, they swim to the surface.

You can check your answers using this answer sheet.

Activity 3: Writing some sentences using 'because', 'if' and 'when'

Write six sentences about the ocean using because, if or when. You might want to watch the video again to get some ideas.

Try and write two sentences for each conjunction.
For example:

Whales swim to the surface because they need to breathe.

Top tip!

Remember to use capital letters at the start of your sentences and punctuation at the end.

Where next?

In this lesson you have used 'and', 'because', 'if' and 'when' to join ideas.

There are other useful articles on Bitesize to help you.

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