Steps in genetic engineering - Higher
The main steps of genetic engineering:
- Enzymes are used to isolate the required gene, this gene is inserted into a vector, which is usually a bacterial plasmid or a virus.
- The vector inserts the gene into required cells.
- The genes are transferred to animal, plant or microorganism cells, during early development. This allows them to develop with the desired characteristics.
This diagram shows how the genetic engineering of a bacterium to produce insulin works: