Ratios show the relationship between two values. They may be in direct proportion and increase as the other increases, or they can be in inverse proportion; as one increases the other decreases.

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A ratio shows the relationship between two quantities.

It is written in the form a:b which is read as ‘a to b’.

Jon has a pack of sweets. He shares them with a friend in the ratio 3:2. This means that for every three sweets John eats, he gives his friend two.

If Jon eats 15 sweets (**5** × 3), his friend will receive 10 sweets (**5** × 2).

In the example, this means that Jon has 5 lots of 3 sweets so his friend will have 5 lots of 2 sweets.

- Question
Bread is made using five parts of flour to three parts liquid.

**a)**Write down the ratio of liquid to flour.**b)**If the recipe calls for 200 g of flour, how much liquid will be needed?**a)**3:5As the question asks for the ratio of liquid to flour, you must write the number of parts of liquid first, followed by flour.

**b)**Five parts = 200One part = 200 ÷ 5 = 40

Three parts = 3 × 40 = 120

120 ml of liquid will be needed.

- Question
Cookies are made using the ratio 3:2:1 of flour, fat and sugar.

If a recipe calls for 150 g of flour, how much fat and sugar are needed?

- Three parts = 150 g
- Divide 150 by three to find what one part is worth
- One part = 50 g
- Fat = Two parts = 2 × 50 = 100 g
- Sugar = One part = 50 g