Rates and temperature

The greater the rate of successful collisions, the greater the rate of reaction. If the temperature of the reaction mixture is increased:

  • reactantparticles move more quickly
  • the energy of the particles increases
  • the rate of successful collisions between reactant particles increases
  • therefore the rate of reaction increases

Note that the mean energy of the collisions changes when the temperature changes. Not only does the rate of collisions increase, the proportion of collisions that are successful also increases.

Question

Explain what is meant by a ‘successful’ collision.

A collision between reactant particles with enough energy (the activation energy or more than the activation energy) to produce a reaction.

Graphs

The rates of two or more reactions can be compared using a graph of mass or volume of product formed against time. The graph shows this for two reactions.

Graph of total mass of product against time from start of reaction, for high and low temperature.

The gradient of the line is equal to the rate of reaction. The faster reaction at the higher temperature:

  • gives a steeper line
  • finishes sooner
curriculum-key-fact
The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is due to two factors: rate of collisions and energy of collisions. The increase in energy is usually the more important factor.