Case study - the Lake District, England

Helvellyn stands is one of England's highest mountain, standing at 949 metres above sea level in the Lake District in north-west England. It is made up of igneous rocks which were formed 450 million years ago.

Many of the landscape features visible around Helvellyn today were formed during the last ice age over 20,000 years ago. Large glaciers dominated the landscape and through their erosive power, carved out classic glaciated landforms such as arêtes, corries and glacial troughs.

Helvellyn is a mountain, which contains several glacial landforms. Two arêtes ascend to the summit of Helvellyn, Striding edge and Swirral edge. Striding Edge forms the back wall of the Red Tarn corrie.

Striding Edge, Lake District
Striding Edge, looking down on Red Tarn

Red Tarn is an example of a corrie on the eastern side of the summit of Helvellyn. It has the following distinctive features:

Swirral Edge and Striding Edge are examples of an arête. Red Tarn is a corrie lake. There is a steep back wall between the arêtes and the corrie lake.

To the east of Helvellyn is Ullswater. This is a ribbon lake which occupies a glacial trough (a U-shaped valley).

In other parts of the Lake District, boulder clay has been deposited in the valley bottoms as drumlins.

Ullswater, Lake District

Ullswater is a ribbon lake