Plant cells

Plants are made up of cells. These cells are eukaryotic. This means they have a nucleus and other structures which are surrounded by membranes.

A view of cells under a light microscope and an electron microscopeA generalised plant cell and its components.

Animal and plant cells have certain structures in common: the nucleus, cell membrane,mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have some additional structures:

StructureHow it is related to its function
ChloroplastOrganelle that contains the green pigment, chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. Contains the enzymes needed for photosynthesis.
Cell wallPlant and bacterial cell walls provide structure and protection. Only plant cell walls are made from cellulose.
Permanent vacuoleFilled with cell sap to help keep the cell swollen.

Animal cells may also have vacuoles, but these are small and temporary.