There are two types of diabetes - type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas stops producing enough insulin.
This can be detected from an early age. It is characterised by uncontrolled high blood glucose levels and it can be controlled by injecting insulin.
People with type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the day. Their levels of physical activity and their diet affect the amount of insulin needed.
They can help to control their blood glucose level by being careful with their diet, and eat foods that will not cause large increases in blood sugar level, and by exercising, which can lower blood glucose levels due to increased respiration in the muscles.
In type 2 diabetes the person's body cells no longer respond to insulin produced by the pancreas. It is more common in older people. It can be managed by eating a carbohydrate controlled diet and an exercise regime.
Type 2 diabetes can also be controlled using insulin injections to increase the levels of insulin so that the body responds to it. However, this is not effective in the long term unlike type 1 diabetes.
Carbohydrate is digested into glucose, which raises the overall blood glucose level. There is a positive correlation between rising levels of obesity in the general population and increasing levels of Type 2 diabetes.
Use the graph to describe the patterns in this data. [4 marks]
The graph shows a range of data from 1990 to 2000. The mean body weight has steadily increased (1 mark) from approximately 72.5 kg in 1990, to just over 77 kg in 2000. (1 mark)
This correlates with a general increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes. (1 mark) For example, the percentage was just below 5 percent in 1990 up to just below 7.5 percent in 2000. This shows an overall increase in 2.5 percent over 10 years. (1 mark)
|Type 1||Type 2|
|Cause||Pancreas stops making insulin||Body no longer responds to its own insulin (though pancreas will still make it)|
|Consequence||Blood glucose levels remain too high||Blood glucose levels remain too high|
|Use of insulin injections||Puts insulin into the bloodstream as the person cannot make insulin||Increases the amount of insulin in the blood to levels that will cause a response|
|Use of exercise||Exercise causes glucose up be used up in respiration so lowers blood glucose levels||Exercise causes glucose up be used up in respiration so lowers blood glucose levels|
|Use of diet||Person should avoid eating foods that are high in sugar||Person should eat a carbohydrate controlled diet|
|Age of onset||Younger children||Older people|