Yeast cells (an example of a fungus)

Yeast are single-celled fungi. Like plants, they have a cell wall. However, unlike plants, they are unable to make their own food.

Like animals, they take in chemicals from their environment. These chemicals are respired to provide energy.

A yeast cell showing cytoplasm, the small ribosomes, the larger mitochondrion, nucleus, cell wall and cell membrane.

Humans have used yeast for many thousands of years for brewing and baking. Brewing uses anaerobic respiration. Baking uses aerobic respiration.

Structure functions common to animal cells:

Cell structureFunction
CytoplasmWhere enzymes and other proteins are made. Location of reactions in anaerobic respiration.
NucleusContains DNA which carries the genetic code for making enzymes and other proteins used in chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and respiration.
Cell membraneAllows gases and water to diffuse freely into and out of the cell. Controls the transport of other molecules.
Mitochondrion (plural is mitochondria)Contains enzymes for the reactions in aerobic respiration (in animals, plants and yeast).
RibosomeWhere amino acids are joined together to make a protein.

Structure common to plant cells:

Cell wallMade from chitin and strengthens the cell.