Rural to urban migration in India

India is an example of a newly industrialised country (NIC). Each year thousands of people move to the city of Mumbai from rural areas. People move to Mumbai because the city has lots of pull factors. People think that the city will provide lots of opportunities such as:

  • social - better housing and services, eg healthcare and education
  • economic - more jobs and higher wages
  • environmental - better living conditions with a safer environment (less chance of natural disasters)

People who move think that they will have a better quality of life. However, cities such as Mumbai face lots of challenges and the people who move there do not always have a better quality of life. Some of the challenges they may face include:

  • social - poor housing conditions and crime
  • economic - low wages or unemployment
  • environmental - polluted drinking water and a lack of sanitation