The impact of Nazi actions and policies by 1939

Impact on employment

Female employment initially dropped.

Those in professions were worst affected. In 1933, 15 per cent of teachers lost their jobs and 19,000 female civil servants were sacked. Only 11 per cent of university places were given to women.

Females were excluded from decision-making, for example they were not allowed to be members of the Reichstag.

Manual workers were affected less than those in professions, but some had to accept badly paid agricultural jobs.

However, by 1939 there was a shortage of workers so more females were encouraged back into employment. This led to 50 per cent more women working in industry, but women in the professions were still rare.

Impact on marriage and children

The number of marriages increased by over 200,000.

Divorces also increased, especially after changes to the divorce laws in 1938.

About 320,000 men and women were sterilised.

Infant mortality dropped because of improved sanitation and preventative medicine.