Movement and settlement in the Islamic world
The Islamic world experienced huge migrations of people:
- the Seljuk invasions from Central Asia in the 11th and 12th centuries
- the Mongol invasions from central Asia in the 13th century
Also, medieval Muslim traders and warriors settled over a vast area of the globe, taking their religion with them.
- Muslim Arab traders and warriors set up trading posts and settlements throughout the Sahara, down the east coast of Africa, into India and even in south-east Asia.
- After the Mongols converted to Islam, they established a number of Muslim states in Iran, Central Asia and Russia. The Mongol state in Russia was called the Golden Horde.
- The ghazi military commanders who conquered eastern Europe after 1350 were given land there as a reward.