Conflict in the Islamic world

The Crusades were not the most important wars in the history of the Islamic world.

The fall of Constantinople led to an influx of ‘rescued’ manuscripts into the rest of Europe that helped drive new learning in the Renaissance.

Seljuk zodiac coin from the ancient city of Siwas, Turkey

Medieval Islam

Seljuk zodiac coin from the ancient city of Siwas, Turkey. After 1040, Seljuk Turks from Central Asia invaded and conquered the eastern parts of the Islamic world

Conflicts involving the Islamic world from 1040 to 1492:

  • After 1040, Seljuk Turks from Central Asia invaded and conquered the eastern parts of the Islamic world.
  • After 1065, groups of nomadic Turks began to invade and settle in the Byzantine Empire in search of better grazing lands for their animals.
  • From the 1220s onwards pagan Mongols from Central Asia invaded, conquered the eastern Islamic world, destroyed agriculture and urban centres and slaughtered many of the inhabitants.
  • After 1350, the Ottoman Turks invaded Europe and conquered the Balkans. In 1453 they captured Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
  • From the end of the 11th century, Spanish Christians gradually reconquered Spain, capturing Granada, the last Muslim state on Spanish soil, in 1492.