Case Study

London congestion charge

London congestion charging zone sign
London congestion charging zone sign

Drivers are charged for driving in the congestion charging zone. The aim is to discourage people from driving into the zone during peak hours and use public transport instead, thereby reducing congestion, the time spent in queues, the pollution generated and the cost to the economy.

The money generated is used to improve public transport. In London buses have been renewed and the older vehicles which generate more pollution have been removed from service.

The results

  • Traffic congestion, accidents, and pollution levels have all been reduced.
  • Bus services are more reliable.
  • Retail sales inside the congestion charging zone have increased.
  • There has been increased investment in public transport.

Energy efficiency

Electric car
Electric car

With energy consumption rising, it is important that industry, transportation and consumers in their homes use energy more efficiently, so that less is wasted. This will also save money on fuel bills. We can all help by making changes to our lifestyles and our homes in a number of ways:

  • Walking, cycling or using public transport rather than fossil-fuel powered cars.
  • Reducing the number of aircraft journeys taken (especially short-haul flights).
  • Using smaller, more energy-efficient cars or electric cars.
  • Switching off lights, power sockets, phone chargers and TVs when not in use.
  • Recycling and reusing plastics and oil-based products.
  • Using energy-efficient light bulbs and rechargeable batteries.
  • Insulating house roofs, blocking draughts and using double-glazing and energy-efficient heating systems.
  • Consider installing solar panels or switching to an electricity supplier that provides green electricity.

Exam tips

  1. Make sure you know about the different ways of generating renewable energy and what people can do in order to become more energy-efficient.
  2. Make sure you know what the term sustainable means. Think about examples of sustainability in the context of energy production, economic activity and development.


Describe strategies to manage the impact of climate change.

  • Industries expand renewable energy sources such as wind, wave and solar power.
  • Many governments signed an agreement (called the Kyoto Protocol), committing them to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Governments ban the use of harmful substances e.g. CFCs to protect the ozone layer.
  • Bus lanes and cycle lanes designated on roads to encourage people not to use their car. This reduces the amount of pollution from exhaust fumes.
  • Local councils supply bins to help householders recycle various products.
  • Install solar panels on house roof to generate renewable energy.
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