Hard engineering management involves using artificial structures, such as dams and embankments. Soft engineering management is a more natural approach to manage flooding, such as floodplain zoning.
Which of the following could cause flooding?
What is a hydrograph?
A graph to show how a river responds to flooding
A graph to show how much damage is caused by flooding
A graph to predict floods
What is hard engineering management?
Building artificial structures to control rivers
A natural approach to control rivers
Using technology to monitor river flooding rates
What is soft engineering management?
What is a disadvantage of a dam and reservoir?
It increases flood risk downstream
It doesn’t reduce flooding
It is expensive to build
What is river dredging?
Making the river wider
Making the river deeper
Building up the banks of the river
What is a disadvantage of flood warnings?
The equipment used is very expensive
Flash floods happen too quickly for a warning to be effective
People don’t listen to the warnings
What is an advantage of floodplain zoning?
Expensive buildings are further away so there is less economic impact
It can easily be done in all existing built-up areas
Planning is simple as a standard model is followed
Which of the following was not a physical cause of the floods in Cockermouth in 2009?
The steep-sided mountains surrounding the area
The tarmac and concrete surfaces of the town
The heavy relief rainfall
Which of the following was a human cause of the floods in Cockermouth in 2009?
The ground was saturated from previous months of heavy rain
Cockermouth is the confluence where two rivers meet
The rivers in the area had not been dredged for several years