Some sportspeople try to gain an advantage by using performance-enhancing drugs. This is known as doping. Many performance-enhancing drugs are banned by sports' governing bodies.
There are 5 'doping classes', which are categories of banned drugs:
|Doping class||Effect on performance||Dangerous side-effects|
|Stimulants||Make athletes more alert and mask fatigue (extreme tiredness caused by physical activity)||Can cause heart failure, addictive|
|Anabolic agents - steroids||Help athletes to train harder and build muscle||Increased aggression and kidney damage|
|Diuretics||Remove fluid from the body. Used to make the weight, eg in boxing and to hide other drug use||Causes severe dehydration|
|Narcotic analgesics||Mask pain caused by injury or fatigue which can make the injury worse||Addictive|
|Peptides and hormones||EPO (Erythropoietin) red blood cells - gives more energy and HGH (Human Growth Hormone) - build muscle||EPO - risk of stroke or heart problems and HGH - abnormal growth, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis etc|
Beta blockers are banned in archery and shooting as they keep the heart rate low and reduce tremble in the hands.
Blood doping is injecting blood that has been removed from the body a few days earlier, enabling the blood to carry more oxygen. It is banned as it's a form of cheating. It can cause kidney and heart failure.