In 1696, Gregory King published The State and Condition of England, in which he described the population of England and Wales.
He divided the population into the following categories:
|Lords and squires||154,000|
|Clergy, lawyers and scholars||202,000|
|Government employees, soldiers||176,000|
|Labourers and servants||1,275,000|
|Paupers and poor||1,300,000|
|Merchants, shopkeepers and seamen||394,000|
He analysed the population by numbers and by income.
He divided the hierarchy into 'interests', eg owning land and trading. Into each group he put both the rich and poor, eg seamen earning £14 a year alongside merchants earning £400. This is because he thought they had more in common with each other than a seaman might have with, say, a farm labourer.
The people of England had not yet learnt to think in terms of social 'class' and still grouped people on their loyalty to their lord.