The **grid method** is a visual way of multiplying two numbers. Each digit in the number is put into its place value column. For example, calculate :

- 46 = 40 (four tens) plus 6 (6 units)
- 35 = 30 (three tens) plus 5 (5 units)

40 (tens) | 6 (units) | Total | |
---|---|---|---|

30 (tens) | |||

5 (units) | |||

Therefore, .

Numbers can be multiplied together using the column method which involves writing one number underneath the other.

Calculate .

Therefore, .

Small numbers can be divided using knowledge of times tables. Larger numbers can be divided using **short division**. Short division is a written method that uses mental arithmetic to divide a number in stages. It is ideal when the divisor is less than 10.

- Question
Using short division, divide 895 by 5.

means 'how many times will 5 divide into 895?'. The 5 is called the

**divisor**.Divide each digit by 5. Start with the hundreds:

Calculate the remainder:

,

So the remainder is 3. Carry three hundred into the tens column:

Calculate the remainder:

,

So the remainder is 4. Carry four tens into the units column:

Therefore, . The solution of the division is called the

**quotient**.Sometimes, a digit in a particular place value column may not be divisible by the divisor.

- Question
What is ?

is not possible, so carry one hundred into the tens column.

, with no remainder.