# Multiplying and dividing whole numbers

## Grid method for multiplying numbers

The grid method is a visual way of multiplying two numbers. Each digit in the number is put into its place value column. For example, calculate :

• 46 = 40 (four tens) plus 6 (6 units)
• 35 = 30 (three tens) plus 5 (5 units)
40 (tens)6 (units)Total
30 (tens)
5 (units)

Therefore, .

## Column method for multiplying numbers

Numbers can be multiplied together using the column method which involves writing one number underneath the other.

### Example

Calculate .

First, multiply 6 × 5 and carry the 30 to the tens column

Therefore, .

## Short division

Small numbers can be divided using knowledge of times tables. Larger numbers can be divided using short division. Short division is a written method that uses mental arithmetic to divide a number in stages. It is ideal when the is less than 10.

Question

Using short division, divide 895 by 5.

means 'how many times will 5 divide into 895?'. The 5 is called the divisor.

Calculate the remainder:

,

So the remainder is 3. Carry three hundred into the tens column:

Calculate the remainder:

,

So the remainder is 4. Carry four tens into the units column:

Therefore, . The solution of the division is called the quotient.

Sometimes, a digit in a particular place value column may not be divisible by the divisor.

Question

What is ?

is not possible, so carry one hundred into the tens column.

, with no remainder.