It is useful for you to be able to multiply and divide without using a calculator. Learn how to do this using short division and short multiplication.

Credit: Ken Welsh/Bridgeman

This method uses a grid to multiply numbers.

Multiplying a two-digit number with another two-digit number would require a by grid, for example .

Multiplying would require a by grid.

Follow the steps below to see how Napierās method is used to calculate .

- The first step is to draw a by grid.
- The second step is to draw a diagonal in each box. The diagonal line separates the tens and the units. Always write the tens
**above**the diagonal line in each box. - Start by multiplying and to fill the left box on the top row.
- Write and to show that there are no tens.

- Now multiply and to fill the right box on the top row.

- Next, multiply and to fill the left box on the bottom row.
- Remember to put the above the diagonal.

- Complete the grid by multiplying and to fill the right box on the bottom row.

After completing the grid, add the columns along the diagonals, starting at the bottom-right. We sometimes need to carry over from one diagonal to the next. To get the answer, read the totals down the left and to the right.

- Question
Use Napierās method to calculate .

Draw a box and follow the guidelines in the previous example.

Did you notice that thereās no need to carry over in this example?