Reducing unwanted energy transfer

There are two main ways to reduce unwanted energy transfers by heating:

The table shows some ways in which this is achieved in homes and other buildings.

MethodDetails
Cavity wallA gap between two brick walls contains air, which has a lower thermal conductivity than brick.
Cavity wall insulationThe gap between two brick walls is filled with material that has a lower thermal conductivity than air.
Loft insulationA thick layer of material with a low thermal conductivity reduces the rate of heat transfer through the ceiling.
Double glazed windowsA gap between two panes of glass contains air or another gas, which has a lower thermal conductivity than glass.
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