This is the most common question on exam papers, although the number of marks for each question may vary.
At its simplest, this type of question will ask you to remember a simple fact that you have been taught. This type of question is likely to be worth one mark, and will often start with 'Give...', 'State...' or 'Name..'. In some cases, a question may ask you to state two things, rather than just one, and will be worth 2 marks.
Other structured questions may be worth two or more marks. These will often start with a command word such as 'Describe...' or 'Explain...', and will require a more detailed answer:
More complex structured questions will be worth three or four marks. They include questions with complex descriptions and explanations, questions in which you need to compare and contrast two different things, or calculations with several stages.
The mark schemes given here may show answers as bullet points. This is to show clearly how a mark can be obtained. However, it is important that your answer is written in a logical, linked way. Examiners will not credit a key word if it is used out of context, or if your answer contradicts itself.
Questions courtesy of Eduqas.
The diagram shows the electronic structure of an element in the periodic table.
Using dots to represent an electron, draw a similar diagram to show the electronic structure of the element which:
a) lies directly below this element in the periodic table.
b) lies directly to the right of this element in the periodic table.
Potassium reacts vigorously with water forming potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, H2.
Give two observations made when potassium reacts with water in a large trough.
Your answer can include any two of the following:
The reactivity of group 7 elements was investigated by reacting each halogen with solutions of each halide.
Explain the trend in reactivity in group 7 in terms of electronic structure.
Some reactions of chlorine are listed below.
chlorine + iron → solid X
solid Y + chlorine → sodium chloride
chlorine solution + solution Z → potassium chloride solution + bromine solution
a) Name the following substances:
b) Name the type of reaction that occurs when chlorine solution reacts with solution Z.
c) Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction of chlorine solution reacts with sodium iodide solution.
b) Displacement