The process of genetic engineering - Higher

The main steps of genetic engineering:

  1. Enzymes are used to isolate the required gene, this gene is inserted into a vector, which is usually a bacterial plasmid or a virus.
  2. The vector inserts the gene into required cells.
  3. The genes are transferred to animal, plant or microorganism cells, during early development. This allows them to develop with the desired characteristics.

This diagram shows how the genetic engineering of the insulin works:

Gene from human chromosome responsible for insulin production isolated.  Plasmid isolated from bacterium.  Human gene inserted in plasmid.  Reproduction of bacteria and plasmids result in insulin.