Physical and human factors

The table below shows a summary of physical and human causes of malaria.

Temperatures must be between 15-40°CHouses create areas of shade for the mosquitoes to rest
The presence of the female anopheles mosquitoGlobal air travel contributes to the spread
Humidity of 60 per cent plusSettlements provide large populations for blood meals
Stagnant water, eg paddy fields needed to lay larvaePoor sanitation in shanty towns can contribute to areas of stagnant water

Malaria is spread by the female anopheles mosquito. When an infected mosquito bites a person, the malaria parasite is passed into the human bloodstream, infecting them.

Mosquitoes in turn can pick up the parasite from an infected human and then pass it on when they bite someone else.

The video below describes the malaria cycle.

Consequences of the presence of malaria

Malaria leads to large numbers of children under five dying. Adults with malaria are too weak to work which leads to a loss of productivity. They may not be able to produce enough food for their family. Therefore they remain poor.

As a result they may not have enough to eat, which in turn makes them more vulnerable to disease. A country's limited resources are used up in health care rather than in education or improving services. This hinders development.

Tourists may be less likely to visit a country with malaria so there is less revenue for the country.