In 1544, Henry VIII ordered an invasion of Scotland because he wanted to bring to an end the friendship between Scotland and France, (The Auld Alliance).
The English attacked Edinburgh and Berwick upon Tweed where they burned down houses in the area.
The Scots eventually defeated the English at the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1545.
Henry VIII died in January 1547 and was succeeded by his son Edward who continued the attacks on Scotland.
At the Battle of Pinkie in September 1547, a large Scottish army was defeated by the English.
Important Scottish nobles and Catholic clergymen, were killed.