Carrying out a genetic cross

Monohybrid crosses

Genetic crosses of single gene combinations (monohybrid inheritance) can be shown and examined using Punnett squares. This shows the possible offspring combinations could be produced, and the probability of these combinations can be calculated.

Worked example 1

The height of pea plants is controlled by a single gene which has two alleles: tall and short.

The tall allele is dominant and is shown as T.

The small allele is recessive and is shown as t.

Complete this Punnett square to show the possible allele combinations of the offspring produced when two homozygous pea plants, tall female and short male, are bred.


The female is TT - tall

The male is tt - short


If you add the combinations into each box you see that all the possible offspring have the same allele combination - Tt.

You should always write the dominant allele first.

This means that all the offspring produced will be tall.

Worked example 2

In this genetic cross the mother is heterozygous for the wet ear wax gene (Ee). The father is homozygous for the dry ear wax allele (ee).


Half of the possible offspring will have wet ear wax (Ee). The other half will have dry ear wax (ee).

These examples are single gene combinations, but remember that most phenotypes are controlled by multiple genes.