To evaluate the possible actions fully, the available evidence should be used to state or describe the advantages and disadvantages of the consequences of each action. An informed decision can then be made, based on the evidence and arguments.
To justify a decision:
When making or evaluating, a decision always considers the following types of consequence.
|Type of consequence||Effects on:||How will the decision affect:|
|Personal||Individual people||People's job, their family, living conditions, individual health?|
|Social||Groups of people||Specific groups of people (young, old, commuters)? Employment, travel to work, provision of health care, living conditions, health?|
|Economic||Money||How much people are paid, businesses make, people need to spend? The cost of raw materials or products made?|
|Environmental||Land, water or air||Air quality, the atmosphere, water, land, climate? Man-made structures such as buildings? Specific habitats and their ecosystems. How will it affect reserves of finite resources?|
There are some questions that science cannot answer.
Ethical decisions relate to whether an action and its consequences are right or wrong. This can relate to scientific research itself or the uses of the science. Science alone cannot provide an answer. The decision makers must consider the rights and wrongs of their choice.
The best way for scientists to make sure that everyone's views are taken into consideration is to communicate their work to a range of audiences, including the public, other scientists and politicians. This gives feedback on the risks, benefits, costs and ethical issues, allowing the scientist to make the best decision to benefit the largest group of people.