The **subject** of a formula is the variable that is being worked out. It can be recognised as the letter on its own on one side of the equals sign.

For example, in the formula for the area of a rectangle (area = base x height), the subject of the formula is .

In order to change the subject of, or rearrange, a formula items in the formula need to be arranged so a different variable is the subject. Knowledge of solving equations and inverse operations is very useful.

In the formula , the area ( ) is the subject of the formula which means it is the area that is being worked out.

If the area and height of a rectangle were known and the base of the rectangle was required instead, the formula would need rearranging to make the subject of the formula.

means .

To make the subject of the formula, needs to be isolated. In the formula above, the letter is multiplied by . The inverse of multiplying by is dividing by , so divide both sides by to isolate .

The letter is now isolated which means is now the subject of the formula.

To work out the base of a rectangle the formula is now so divide the area ( ) by the height of the rectangle ( ).

Rearrange the formula to make the subject of the formula.

To make the subject of the formula means to rearrange the formula so it begins with .

Answer this question by finding the letter in the formula.

Isolate this letter by inversing any other items on this side of the equation. Next to the , there is also a . The inverse of adding is subtracting , so subtract from both sides.

Rearrange the formula to make the subject of the formula.

The letter is now isolated, so is now the subject of the formula.

- Question
Rearrange the formula to make the subject of the formula.

Find the letter in the formula.

Isolate this letter by inversing any other steps on this side. The letter here has been divided by the letter . The inverse of dividing by is multiplying by , so multiply both sides by .

The letter is now isolated, so is now the subject of the formula.