How did England defeat the Spanish Armada?

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It was bad luck, bad tactics and bad weather that defeated the Spanish ArmadaRobert Hutchinson, Historian - BBC History Magazine

Bad weather was certainly one factor that contributed to the Spanish defeat, but there were other factors too:

Factor
LeadersThe Duke of Medina Sidonia led the Spanish fleet, but he was inexperienced in naval battle and so made some fatal errors in his planning and tactics.
PlanningThe strength of the Spanish fleet came from its crescent formation plan – but when the English broke this up with their fireships, the Spanish became vulnerable and exposed to attack.
No reinforcementsThe Spanish plan relied on stopping to pick up the Duke of Parma’s army to boost their numbers, but the fleet was unable to anchor and so never picked them up.
TacticsSpanish tactics were to get close enough to English ships to board them, whereas the English tactic was to attack from a safe distance.
ShipsSpanish ships were slower and less equipped for the bad weather than the English ships.
WeaponsThe English ships had cannon they could fire at a safe distance and could be reloaded quickly. The design of the Spanish cannon meant that they could only fire over short distances and were slow to re-load.
SupportThe Spanish overestimated the level of support there would be in England for Spanish control and a return to Roman Catholicism.
WeatherThe lack of a secure port where the Spanish could take shelter meant that the Spanish ships were buffeted by the wind. The thinking was that God intervened and the windy weather was a sign that God was on Elizabeth’s side.