Questions with 1, 2, 3 or 4 marks usually start with command words. If a question starts with the command word 'state', 'give', 'name' or 'write down', it needs a short answer only. This type of question can often be answered with one word or phrase.
It is important to state, give, name or write down the number of things that the question asks for. If you write down fewer, you cannot get all the marks. If you write down more, and one is wrong, you might lose a mark.
Some questions start with the command words 'describe', 'explain' or 'compare'. These are often worth two or more marks:
More complex structured questions will be worth three or four marks. They include questions with complex descriptions and explanations and questions in which you need to compare things.
Some of the answers are shown here as bullet points. This is to show clearly how a mark can be obtained. However, do not use bullet points in your answers - the points must be linked together logically.
This page contains AQA material which is reproduced by permission of AQA.
Bacteria can cause disease.
One disease-causing bacterium is Salmonella.
Salmonella is spread between people in contaminated food.
Give two ways you could stop Salmonella from spreading. [2 marks]
Any two from:
Doctors gave a percentage rating to the health of 16-year-olds.
100% is perfect health.
This table shows the amount of exercise 16-year-olds do and their health rating.
|Amount of exercise done in minutes every week||Health rating as %|
|Less than 30||72|
What conclusion can be made about the effect of exercise on health?
Use information from the table. [1 mark]
The more exercise done the healthier the person is .
Statins are drugs used to treat coronary heart disease (CHD).
New drugs must be trialled before they can be licensed for use.
Scientists trialled two different types of statin.
a) During the trials the statins are tested for side effects.
Give two other reasons why the statins are trialled before use. [2 marks]
b) Describe how the double-blind method is used in this trial. [2 marks]
a) Any two from:
b) Patients are randomly allocated to receive statin or placebo  so neither patient nor doctor knows who has received which .
Explain how the build-up of fatty material can damage the heart. [4 marks]
It builds up inside the coronary arteries  causing them to narrow . This reduces blood flow  so less oxygen gets to the heart muscle .